注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

娟紫的博客

一万年太久,只争朝夕。。。。

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

痴迷音乐,电影,只会欣赏,喜欢诗词,难写佳篇杰作,爱好书法,写的一般,钟爱围棋,只会玩玩,热爱英语,走不出国门。就这样的一个人。。。。

网易考拉推荐

定语从句与同位语从句的区别 & 现在分词和动名词的区别 & whether与if的区别 & 形容词常见后缀  

2012-06-25 21:21:12|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

第一项;同位语从句和定语从句的区别

同位语从句和定语从句都放在被修饰词的后边,从形式上来看,它们十分相似。从以下几个方面来谈它们的区别。
1、从句所修饰词的不同。同位语从句所修饰词通常是少数一些表示抽象意义的名词,如belief , doubt , fact , hope , idea , news , possibility , thought , order , suggestion , wish , answer , information , conclusion , decision , discovery , knowledge , law , opinion , problem , promise , proof , question , report , truth , risk 等。定语从句的先行词可以指人、物等。例如:
He has told us a fact that drinking too much does harm to our health.他又告诉我们一个事实,过渡饮酒对健康有害。(同位语从句)
We have no idea that her mother was a professor ten years ago. . 我们不知道她的母亲十年前是个教授。(同位语从句)
This is the book that I bought yesterday. 这是我昨天买的那本书。(定语从句)
I will never forget the day when I joined the Party. 我将永远不会忘记我入党的那一天。(定语从句)
2. 连接词的作用不同。连接同位语从句的that只起连接作用,不在从句中担任任何句子成分。whether 和 how 可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。关系代词和关系副词除了连接从句的作用外,还在定语从句中充当一定的句子成分,如主语、宾语、定语、表语等。引导定语从句的连接词是关系词,常见的关系代词和关系副词有that , which , who , whose , whom , when , where , why , as,than, but 等。
The news that he wants to get is whether he will be sent to the countryside.他所想得到的消息是他是否将被派往农村。(定语从句,关系代词that作从句get的宾语。)
Do you have a doubt whether she will be dismissed from school? 你怀疑她是否能被学校开除吗?(同位语从句)
I have no idea how his parents were sad on hearing that their son was killed in the earthquake. 我不知道他的父母一听到他在地震中阵亡是多么悲伤!(同位语从句)
3. 从句作用的不同。定语从句具有形容词或副词的特点,对先行词起修饰、限定作用,描述先行词的性质或特征,与先行词之间是所属关系。同位语从句具有名词的特点,对中心词作进一步补充解释,是中心词的具体内容。例如:
The man that you saw just now is my bother. 你刚才看到的那个人是我的弟弟。(定语从句)
The suggestion that the meeting be put off proved right.推迟会议的建议证明是正确得。(同位语从句)
The suggestion that he had made is that the meeting be put off. 他提出的建议推迟会议。(定语从句)
4. 正确理解和使用同位语从句,还应注意以下几点:
A.分隔同位语从句:有时同位语从句与其先行词被其它成分分隔开来,这种分隔主要出于修辞原因,即为了保持句子结构平衡,避免头重脚轻。
The whole truth came out at last that he was a wolf in sheep‘s clothing . 真相终于大白了,他原来是只披着羊皮的狼。
An order has come from Beijing that these thieves will be sentenced to death .
B.在某些名词后的同位语从句中,其谓语动词应用虚拟语气形式:(should) + 动词原形。常见的名词有advice , idea , order , demand , plan , proposal , suggestion , request 等。例如:
The suggestion that a new bridge (should) be built was accepted . 采纳了在这里修建一座新桥的建议。
C.同位语从句的先行词往往没有复数形式。例如:
他要来教我们英语的消息昨天我就听说了。
(正)The message that he would teach us English reached me yesterday .
(误)The messages that he would teach us English reached me yesterday .
 
同位语从句与定语从句的区别
(1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。
(2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:
1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)

1)  先行词不同

同位语从句的先行词常是一些具有具体信息内容或一定内涵的名词,如idea, news, fact, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, promise, order, possibility等,而 定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部分或整个主句。

The idea that computers can recognize human voices surprises many people. (同位语从句)

Word came that he had married in America. (同位语从句)

The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room. (定语从句,先行词为名词)

His mother did all she could to help him overcome the difficulty. (定语从句,先行词为代词)

Our team has won the game, which made us very excited. (定语从句,先行词为整个主句)

2)  从句表达的含义不同

定语从句是从句对先行词的修饰和限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步解释和说明,属于名词性从句的范畴。

The news that our team has won the game was true. (同位语从句,补充说明news到底什么消息)

The news that he told me yesterday was true. (定语从句,这里news作told的宾语)

I made a promise that if anyone invest in my company I would make him very rich.(同位语从句,补充说明promise到底是一个什么样的诺言)

The mother made a promise that pleased all her children.(定语从句,promise在从句中作pleased的主语)

3)  引导词及其在句子中的成分不同

有些引导词如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。

The question whether we need new staff has not considered.(同位语从句)

I have no idea what has happened to him.(同位语从句)

4)that 引导的定语从句与同位语从句的区别

引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略。that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,不能省略,也不能用which代替。

The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. (同位语从句,是对order的解释,虽不作成分,但不能省略。)

The order that we received yesterday was to send a few people to help the other groups. (定语从句,对名词order的修饰,that在从句中作receive的宾语,可以省略。)

第二项目:现在分词和动名词的区别

定义:

1、  动名词是非谓语动词,不随主语的人称和数的变化而变化。

2、  分词是形容词性质的动词形态,由于不在句中作谓语,因此其形式固定不随主语的人称和数的变化而变化。

作表语时:动名词表示一定的概念,具有名称的性质

         My hobby is collecting ancient coin.

         My part time job is teaching yoga in a school.

          现在分词,具有形容词特征

         The story is very moving.

         Your speech is very encouraging

作定语时:.

u       动名词作定语是表某种用途

                               a walking stick

                               a washing machine

         现在分词作定语时表:

                            A、某种主动意义

                                                       a moving movie

                                                       a boring meeting

                                                       an interesting experience

                                                 B、表正在进行

                                                       the rising sun

                                                       a changing situation

u   现在分词不重读,动名词必须重读

a sleeping ?child(现在分词不重读)

                     a ?sleeping car(动名词必须重读)

u       现在分词表示其所修饰的名词的动作,也可以说,现在分词与其所修饰的名词在逻辑上具有主谓关系

如:a sleeping child指Child is sleeping.

                           The rising sun指The sun is rising.

                      动名词则表示其修饰的名词的性质,二者在逻辑上无主谓关系

                      如:a sleeping bag指a bag for sleeping

                              a walking stick指a stick for walking

u       现在分词作定语时,其前可有副词、形容词、名词,这些词与现在分词皆有密切关系

a hard-working student(hard是working的状语)

                     a good-looking girl(good是looking的表语)

                     动名词作定语时,其前可有形容词,但此形容词不是修饰动名词,而是修饰“动名词+名词”结构

                     a big waiting room(big不是修饰waiting,而是修饰waiting-room)

名词(代词)之后:现在分词常表进程,动名词常表事实

                               I saw him smoking. (现在分词表进程,him不可变为his)

   I dislike him smoking. (him可变为his,全句=I dislike the fact that he smokes.)












主动语态

被动语态

句法功能

一般式

进行式

完成式

一般式

完成式

动名词

doing

 

having done

being done

having been done

?

?

?

?

 

?

现在分词

doing

 

having done

being done

having been done

 

 

?

?

?

?


第三项目:whether与if的区别


    

whether

If

引导宾语从句的不同

后可直接和or not连用

不可以

例句:1、I don’t care whether or not your car breaks down.

2、I don’t known whether or not he’s coming.

引导的从句一般不可以为否定结构(选择问句的后语一部分除外)

可以跟否定结构

例句:1、I don’t care if she doesn’t come.

2、I don’t care if it doesn’t rain.

但某些形容词后whether可引导一个否定结构的句子,这样结构往往表示肯定含义,如:I wonder whether he doesn’t think too much of himself.=I think he doesn’t think too much of himself.

个别动词后,如discuss等,只跟用whether引导的定语从句,如:1、They discussed whether they should close the shop. 2、We discussed whether Mary could join us.

引导从句作介词的宾语

不能

例句:1、I’m not very interested whether they’ll go or not.

2、It depends on whether we have got enough money.

可直接跟动词不定式连用

不能

例句:1、I didn’t know whether to laugh or to cry.

2、She hasn’t decided whether to go or not.

引导主语从句只能用whether,不能用if, 如:1、Whether it is true remains a problem. 2、Whether he will come, I’m not sure.

引导表语从句只能用whether,如:1、The question is whether you should accept it. 2、The question is whether he will speak at the meeting.

引导同位语从句只能用whether, 如:1、The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is essential. 2、I an in doubt whether I should agree to the plan.

引导让步状语从句

可以,意为“不管,无论”

不能

例句:1、I shall tell her about it whether you agree or not.

2、Whether or not we have a baby, we could not survive just on my salary.

引导条件状语从句

不可以

可以,意为“如果,假如”

例句:We shall do this experiment if we have time.

其它一些情况

If表示条件状语从句易混淆时,应避免使用,如:Please let me known if they are coming.

动词不定式之前只能用whether,如:I can’t decided whether to stay.

介词后只能用whether,如:His father is worried about whether he lose his job.

宾语从句放句首表示强调时,只能用whether,如:Whether they can finish the work on time is still a problem.


whether和if都可以作连词,连接名词性从句,表是否。whether可引导主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同谓语从句,而if只能引导宾语从句。
 
 

第四项目:形容词常见后缀

后缀

后缀含义

例子

-able

可……的,能……的

valuable, comfortable

-al

……的,具有……性质的

national, cultural

-an, -ian

属于……的,有……性质的,属于某地方的

american, urban

-ant

具有……性质的,……的

important, significant

-ary

……的,有……性质的

monetary, necessary

-ate

具有……特征的,充满……的,如……形状的,具有……的

fortunate, considerate

-ed

有……的,如……的

excited, aged

-en

由……制造成的,含有……质的

woolen, silken

-ent

具有……性质的,关于……的

different, dependent

-ese

某国的, 某地的

chinese, Japanese

-ful

充满……的,有……性质的,有……倾向或能力的

beautiful, cheerful

-ible

可……的,易……的

sensible, comprehensible

-ic, -ical

属于……的,有……性质的, 具有……的

poetic, economic, classical , musical

-ing

正在……的,使……的,……的

amusing, amazing

-ish

加名词后时:如……的,似……的,有……性质的, 加形容词后时:略……的,稍……的,具有……性质的

selfish, boyish

-ive

能……的,具有……性质的,属于……的

effective, expensive

-less

无……的,不……的

endless, restless

-like

如……的,有……性质的

childlike, warlike

-ly

如……的,有……性质的,属于……的,反复发生的,每一特定时期发生一次的

friendly, lively, daily, weekly

-ous

属于……的,有……性质的

dangerous, mysterious

-some

易于……的,有……倾向的,产生……的

troublesome, awesome

-y

多……的,有……的,如……的

bloody, dusty

-th

第……,……之一

fourth, fifth

-fold

表倍数

twofold, tenfold

-ern

表方向,性质

western, eastern

-ward

向……方向的

upward, backward

-etic

……的,有……性质的,关于……的,患……病的

energetic, sympathetic

-fic, -ific

含……的,使……的,具有……性质的

horrific, scientific

-ial

属于……的,具有……的

facial, presidential

-id

具有……性质的,如……的

liquid, stupid

-ile

属于……的,有……性质的,如……的,易于……的

fertile, fragile

-ist

具有……特性的

socialist, nationalist

-ite

具有……性质的

polite, opposite

-logical

……学的

biological, geological

-or

较……的,……的

superior, minor

  评论这张
 
阅读(1418)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017