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中考英语句型转换解析秘籍 归类及相关练习  

2012-06-13 19:39:24|  分类: 初中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

句型转换是要求学生根据所给的句型,按要求或提示完成考题,考查的是学生对句子结构的构成、变化等方面的知识以及对此类知识的运用能力。该题型首先给出一个完整的句子,再给出一个含有几个空白处的句子,根据不同的要求填入适当的词完成句型转换。句型转换涉及到语法知识的各个方面,在做这种题时,应注意时态、语态、人称、数的变化,特殊疑问词的用法,及助动词的用法等。句型转换考题虽然包括各种句式,但通常以两种形式进行考查:条件型句型转换和同义型句型转换。

 

一、条件型句型转换

 

条件型句型转换即是要求根据句子后给出的具体要求变换句型。具体考查内容为:

1、单数句、复数句之间的转换;

2、肯定句、否定句、疑问句之间的转换;

3、简单句、并列句、复合句之间的转换;

4、陈述句、感叹句、祈使句之间的转换;

  5、主动语态、被动语态之间的转换。

 

【真题引导1】改为单数句

There are some old sheep on the farm.

There is ______ old ______ on the farm.

 

【答案与解析】

sheep的单、复数形式一样,old是元音开头的词,故冠词不能用a 。单数句与复数句转换时,名词、代词要一 一对应互换。注意名词变复数的规律,同时注意主谓的一致性。答案:an, sheep。

 

【真题引导2】改为一般疑问句

He set the alarm clock for seven.

______ he ______ the alarm clock for seven?

 

【答案与解析】

一般疑问句及否定句的构成:(1) 当谓语动词是be 动词、助动词或情态动词时,将其直接移到句首便可构成一般疑问句,或在其后直接加not构成否定句;(2) 当谓语动词是行为动词时,则加助动词do来完成一般疑问句,第三人称单数用does,一般过去时用did,加助动词后应注意其后谓语动词要用原形,这一点要切记。答案:Did, set。

 

【真题引导3】改为否定句

Both of the players are very popular in England.

_____of the players______very popular in England.

【答案与解析】

Both“两者都”为全肯定。其反义词neither “两者都不”为全否定。either“两者之一”是部分否定。另外either和neither作主语,谓语动词应用单数。答案:Neither, is

 

【真题引导4】改为反意疑问句

Sue speaks little French.

Sue speaks little French, _____?

 

【答案与解析】

反意疑问句应遵循的原则是:前半部分肯定,后半部分否定;前半部分否定,则后半部分肯定。前半部分中有no, little, few, never, hardly, seldom等否定词时,后半部分则用肯定。答案:doesshe。

 

【真题引导5】对画线部分提问

The bank near the shop is very big.

 

【答案与解析】

 就画线部分提问实际上是将句子改为特殊疑问句。特殊疑问句中的疑问词是根据画线部分来确定的。特殊疑问句的构成:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句。该题中near the shop在句中作the bank的定语,故疑问词应用which。答案:Which bank is very big?

 

【真题引导6】改为感叹句

It's raining very heavily.

______it is raining!

 

【答案与解析】

本句感叹的是副词heavily,所以要用how,原句中的very应去掉,还应注意句子开头的首字母要大写。答案:How heavily。

【真题引导7】改为被动语态

They have painted their new house.

Their new house ______ by them.

 

【答案与解析】

原句是现在完成时态,被动结构要用have been done。在主动变被动时,特别要注意被动语态句中主语的人称、数的变化,这句被动句的主语是第三人称单数,要用has。答案:has been painted。

二、同义型句型转换

同义型句型转换即是用另一种方式来表述与原句相同的句意,也称作同义句转换,主要考查学生对句型及词汇的掌握情况。

 

【真题引导1】

I prefer walking there to going by bus.

I prefer to walk there ___ by bus.

 

【答案与解析】

该题考查prefer...to...与prefer...rather than...这两个句型的转换。前者后接动词时用V.+ing形式,而后者则接不定式,并且rather than后的不定式符号要省略。答案:rather than go。

 

真题引导2】

It took Mary two weeks to prepare for the exam.

Mary ____ two weeks ___ for the exam.

 

【答案与解析】

该题考查的是表示“花费时间做某事”的两个句型的转换,take常用的句型是:it takes+时间+ to do...;而spend却是:sb. +spend + 时间 + (in) doing...。答案:spent, in preparing。

 

【真题引导3】

I always get up before six o'clock in my school days.

I __ get up ______ six o'clock in my school days.

 

【答案与解析】

根据原句的意思,只有在第二句的两个空白处分别填入never与after,这样才能表达出与第一句相同的含义。这里要注意always的否定副词是never。答案:never, after。

 

【真题引导4】

The children are too tired to walk farther.

They are_____ tired____ they ____ walk farther.

 

【答案与解析】

含有too...to的简单句常和so...that 引导的复合句互相转换。但是too...to的本身是否定意义,so...that从句要改为否定。答案:so, that, can't

 

【真题引导5】

The girl left her home a few days ago, she has not come back yet.

The girl has____ from her home for a few days.

 

【答案与解析】

第一句意思为“女孩几天前离开家,她现在还未回来”。根据句意可知应用现在完成时。for a few days表示一段时间,在完成时中只能与延续性动词搭配,而leave是非延续性动词。答案:been away


 

一、运用同义词或同义词组

e.g.  1. I got a letter from my brother last weekend.

       = I heard from my brother last weekend.

     2.His little sister could dress herself when she was three years old.

       = His little sister was able to dress herself at the age of three.

这类题目首先要注意比较上下两句,找出需要改动的地方,运用同义词或同义词组进行转换。还要注意把握两句的时态、数的单复和主谓一致等。

Exercises:

1.A.The children are having a good time in the park now.

  B. The children are__________ ____________ in the park _________ _________ ___________.

2.A.He spent thirty minutes in finishing his homework. My God.

 B._____ _________ him ________ _________ _________ ________ finish his homework.

3.A.Very soon the baby started crying.

  B. In ________ ___________ the baby _________ ________ cry.

4.A.What do you think of the movie you saw last week?

  B.___________ do you __________ the movie you saw last week?

5.A.There is only an old chair in the room.

B. There’s _________ __________ an old chair in the room.

6.A.What’s the matter with you, young man?

 B. What’s _________ with you, young man?

7.A.Did you have any problems in working out the math problem?

  B. Did you have ______________ in _____________ the math problem?

8.A.He’ll come to my birthday soon after he finishes his project.

  B. He’ll come to my birthday __________ __________ ________ his project is finished.

 

二、运用反义词或反义词组

e.g.  1.She failed the English exam last time.

      = She didn’t pass the English exam last time.

     2.His house is near the school.

      = His house isn’t far from the school.

      = His house is close to the school.

    这类题目可以否定句中的动词或形容词,是两句意思相符。仍然要注意动词时态一致。

Exercise:

9.A.I don’t think the pig is beautiful.

  B._______ ________ ___________, the pig is __________.

10..A.All of the questions are easy.

   B.____________ __________ the questions is _________________.

11..A.They didn’t find anything under the desk..

  B. They _____________ ____________ under the desk.

三、动词短语转换成介词短语

e.g. 1.Yesterday Mr. King went to New York by air.

     = Mr. King flew to New York yesterday.

此类题目关键就是使用恰当的介词短语,还要注意动词时态一致。

Exercises:

12..A. Helen always goes to school on foot.

   B. Helen always ____________ __________school.

13.A.Tom used a brush to clean his shoes.

   B. Tom ________ his shoes ____________ a brush.

14.A. Manuel usually goes to work by subway, sometimes he rides his motorcycle.

B. Manuel usually ________the subway to work, but at times he goes to work ______ motorbike.

 

四、单句转换成复句,或者复句转换成单句

e.g. 1.She found him a very clever student.

= She found that he was a pretty clever student.

2.The gate is quite wide.  Two cars can go through it at the same time.

= The gate is so wide that two cars can go through it together.

此类题目需要熟悉一些重要的句型和短语。例如:too… to …; so …that…; not… until…等。还要注意了解相关转换类型,如:without短语与if/ unless条件状语从句的转换;enough to …与so …that …的转换;too…to…,not…enough to…, so…that …not…的相互转换等。

 

Exercises:

15.A.Mrs Green doesn’t like traveling by plane at all, I think.

   B.I ____________ think Mrs. Green ___________ traveling a lot.

16.A.The boy is too young to go to school.

   B. The boy is __________ young ________ he __________ do to school.

   C. The boy isn’t _______ ____________ _________ go to school.

17.A.Fish can’t live if there’s no water.

   B. Fish can’t live ___________ _________ water.

   C. Fish can’t live __________ there _______ water.

18.A.He seemed tired last night.

   B._________ __________ that _______ was tired last night.

19.A.The book is so difficult that none of us ca read it.

   B.The book is ________ difficult _________ us ________ read.

   C The book _________ ________ ________ for us to read.

20.A.I can’t finish the work on time if you don’t help me.

   B.I can’t finish the work on time ___________ __________ ___________.

   C.I can’t finish the work on time _________ you ________ me ______ ___________.

21.A.I think it easy to work out the physic problem.

  B.I think I _______ work out the physic problem _____________ .

  C.________ easy ________ me _______ work out the physic problem.

 

五、同一单词的不同词性相互转换

e.g.  .He promised to help us.

     = He made a promise to help us.

  此类题目要求学生在记单词的时候要理解它们的词性。功在平时,博闻强识。

Exercise:

22.A.Jim didn’t come to school because he was ill.

   B. Jim didn’t come to school ___________ _________ his ____________.

23A.Mike decided to try to learn English well.

  B Mike ___________ a __________ to try to learn English well.

24.A.Let’s discuss it together, OK?

   B.__________ you please ___________ a ____________ with us?

25.A.He is a successful actor.

   B. He _____________ in __________.

26.A. What he said surprised us.

   B. We __________ ____________ _________ his words.

27.A. The story interested them a lot.

   B. The story ____________ them very _____________ .

 

六、并列复合连词连接或改写原句

e.g. .Maria has been to Shanghai, so has Kate.

      = Both Maria and Kate have been to Shanghai.

   此类题目特别要注意时态的一致,主语和谓语在数上的一致。还要对象一些短语比较熟悉,例如:either…or…, both…and…., neither… nor…; not only… but also…。还有一些句型,例如:So + 动词+主语; …, too.等。

Exercises:

28.A.She can’t answer the question, neither can I.

   B._____________ she ____________ I _________ answer the question.

   C._____________ __________ us _________ answer the question.

D. She can’t answer the question, and I can’t, _____________.

29.A.Grace went to bed after she finished doing her homework.

   B. Grace ____________ _________ to bed ___________ she finished her homework.

30.A. Lucy went to the cinema, John went to the cinema, too.

   B. _________ _________ Lucy __________ __________ John went to the cinema.

31.A. You can go there by ship or you may go there by plane.

   B. You may go there _________ by ship __________ by plane.

32.A. In the place one can’t stand up and one can’t lie down either.

   B. In the place one __________ ___________ stand up ____________ lie down.

 

 七、主动语态与被动语态的转换

e.g. Father made his children work hard every day.

= The children were made to work hard every day.

此类题目要注意时态的一致,主语和谓语在数上的一致,短语的完整性。特别注意有些主动语态中生的省to 不定时改为被动语态后要还原不定时符号to.

Exercises:

33.A. The student were asked to finished their homework in class by the teacher.

   B. The teacher __________ __________ ________ finish their homework in class.

34.A. We must look after old people well.

   B. Old people ___________ _________ __________ ________ well.

35.A. People built this bridge 1500 years ago.

   B. This bridge _________ ___________ 1500 years ago.

36.A. People grow rice in southern China.

   B. Rice _______ ___________ in southern China.

37.A. A large number of people speak English in the world.

   B. English __________ ____________ ________ many people in the world.

 

八、动作动词与状态动词的相互转换

e.g.    I borrowed this book from the school library three weeks ago.

       = I have kept this library book for three weeks.

  此类题目既要要求对一些动作动词(常是瞬间动词)相关的状态动词(常是非延续动词)很熟悉,还要注意时态的变化,通常是一般现在时变为现在完成时。特别注意瞬间动词不能与表示一段的时间状语联用;有些句子在变化时主语要作一定的调整。

Exercises:

38.A. The young man has been in the army for four years.

   B. The young man ___________ the army four years _________.

C. __________ two years ___________ the young man ________ the army .

39.A. His uncle bought the new house two and a half years ago.

   B. His uncle ___________ __________ the new house for ________ ________ and ______ _________.

40.A. It’s about ten minutes since he left the room.

   B. He ________ the room ten minutes __________.

    C. He ________ __________ ___________ ___________ the room for about ten minutes.

41.A. I closed the window two minutes ago.

B. The window __________ ___________ ____________ for two minutes.

42.A. He became an English teacher 15 years ago.

  B. He ________ ____________ an English __________ 15 years ago.

C. He __________ __________ English for 15 years.

  D. It ________ ____________ 15 years ____________ he started teaching English 15 years ago.

 

九、宾语从句与动词不定式之间的转换

e.g.  Please tell me how I can get to the nearest post office.

      = Could you tell me how to get to the nearest post office?

   此类题目要求学生明白疑问词与动词不定时连用的含义,构成不定时结构如:

how to…,when to…, what to…, where to…等。还要注意一些含动词不定式的短语,

如:ask sb.(not) to do sth., tell sb. (not) to do sth.等。

Exercises:

43.A. Our teacher told him that he shouldn’t be late the next time.

   B. Our teacher told him __________ __________ _________ late the next time.

44A. They are thinking of what they should do next.

B. They are thinking of ___________ ________ ____________ next.

45.A. Can you let me know when they will start?

   B. Could you please tell me __________ __________ ___________?

46A. They piled the snow in one place so that they could make a snowman.

  B. They piled the snow in one place _________ __________ _______ make a snowman.

 

十、直接引语和间接引语间的转换

e.g.  1.“Listen carefully, Jack.” Said the Math teacher.

      = The math teacher ___________ Jack __________ __________ carefully.

   2. “What does your feather do?” Mrs. Yang asked .

     = Mrs. Yang asked him ___________ _________ father ___________.

此类题目要注意陈述语序和疑问语序间的转换、时态的变化、人称代词的变化、物主代词的变化,以及一些时间、地点甚至指示代词的变化。

Exercises:

47.A. “Don’t look out of the window, Lin Xiang.” Mr. Wu said angrily.

   B. Mr. Wu __________ Lin Xiang ___________ __________ look out of the window.

48.A. “ What are you doing here in the classroom?” he asked.

   B. He asked me ___________ _________ __________ _________ __________ in the classroom.

49.A. “The sun is much bigger than the earth.” Mother told me .

   B. Mother told me ________ the sun  ___________ much bigger than the earth.

50.A. “What are you doing now? father asked.

   B. Father asked her what ________ _________ _________ _________.

51. A. “Do you like English best?” our Chinese teacher asked.

   B. Our Chinese teacher asks Julie _________ ________ _________ English best.

 

十一、含形容词的短语和含副词的短语间的转换

e.g.   The rain was heavy last night.

      = It rained heavily last night.

    此类题目关键就是理解句子含义,灵活地运用相关的不同词性的词或短语。

Exercises:

52. A. Bruce has breakfast quickly and then goes to school.

    B. Bruce has _________ ___________ breakfast and then he goes to school.

53.A. The wind is very strong outside.

   B. It is ______________ _______________ outside.

54.A. The problems are easy for him to work out.

   B. He can work out the problems ___________.

 

十二、陈述句与感叹句及两种形式感叹句间的转换

e.g.  The boy drew a very beautiful flower.

     = How beautiful a flower the boy drew1

     = What a beautiful flower the boy drew!

   此类题目要求学生能够完全掌握what和how引导的感叹句的构成,并能灵活运用。

Exercises:

55.A. What a strong wind it is!

   B. ____________ ___________ the wind ________ _____________!

56.A. How interesting the English lesson is!

  B. _____________ -__________ interesting English lesson it is!

57.A. She is quite a clever girl.

   B. _________ ___________ the girl is!

   C. __________ -_______ __________ girl she is!

 

十三、形容词、副词三种等级之间的转换

e.g.   Henry is taller than the other students in our class.

      = Henry is the tallest student in our class.

    此类题目需要学生能够熟悉形容词、副词的构成规律,能够灵活运用一些有关形容词和副词比较等级的句型结构,如:(1)more and more…,(2) the +比较级+of the two …; (3)The +比较级…, the +(另一词)比较级…。 特别要清楚表示最高级范围的结构,如:(1)in+组织/单位,(2)of +与主语同类别的人或物。表示排除主语的结构,如:(10)the other +名词复数;(2)any other +名词单数。表示相同性质比较的结构,as+形容词/副词(原级)+as; not as/so …as….。解题时注意交换句子主语,用反义词进行改写;或者用比较级表示最高级含义。

Exercises:

58.A. He is the best at English of all the students in his class.

   B. _____________ ___________ is___________ at English than he.

59.A. Joe is shorter than any other student in his class.

   B. Joe is __________ ____________ ____________ all the students in the class.

   C. ______________ else is taller than Joe in the class.

    D. _____________ else is _______ short _________ Joe in the class.

60.A. Tiger Woods plays golf best of all the three golfers.

   B. Tiger Woods plays golf ________ ___________ __________ ________ ________ golfers.

61.A. The sun is much bigger than the earth.

   B. The earth is much __________ than the sun.

62.A. Light travels faster than sound.

   B. Sound travels __________ ___________ than light.

   C. Sound __________ travel _________ __________ _________ light.

63.A. English is more popular than French.

   B. French is ___________ __________ than English

64.A. The Changjiang River is the longest of all the rivers in China.

   B. The Changjinag River is _________ than ___________ _________ river in China.

65.This story isn’t as interesting as that one.

   B. This story is __________ interesting than that one.

   C. That story is __________ interesting than this story.

 

十四、“祈使句+and/or …”结构与if 条件状语从句间的转换

e.g.  If you run a little faster, you’ll catch up with your classmates.

      = Run faster, and you’ll catch up with your classmates.

   此类题目要注意句子的肯定与否定,正确使用and 和or。

Exercises:

66.A. Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school.

   B. _______ you _________ hurry up, you won’t get to school ________ _________.

67.A. Be more careful, and you can get better grades next time.

   B. _______ you _________ more careful, you can get better grades next time.

 

十五、形式主语/宾语it和不定式主语/宾语及从句、动名词间的转换

e.g.  Talking to you is nice.

     = It’s nice talking to you.

Exercises:

68.A. To learn English well is not easy.

  B. _________ _________ easy _________ learn English well.

69.A. That he didn’t come worries us all.

   B. _______ worries all of us _________ he didn’t come

 

十六、其它形式

e.g.   What’s wrong with your mother?

      = What’s the matter with your mother?

Exercises:

70.A. What subject do you like best?

   B. ___________ your ____________ subject?

71.A. What does his uncle do?

   B. ___________ his uncle?

   C. What’s his ____________ ____________?

72.A. Cab I help you?

   B. ________ can I ________ __________ you?

73.A. How many people are there in the country?

   B. ______________ the ______________ of the country?

74.A. What the meaning of this word、

   B. What does this word ___________?

75.A. Ted has so much money that he can buy a very big house.

   B. Ted ________ _________ ________ _______ buy a very big house.

   C. Ted _______ _________ ________ buy a big house.

 

当然,这里只是对同义句转换题作一个方法上的讨论,以期起到“抛砖引玉”的作用。要真正能够做对这类题型,还要同学们在平时下苦功夫,多研究,多总结,多记忆。

 

附答案:

1.having, fun/ enjoying, themselves; at, the ,moment     2.It ,took, half, an ,hour ,to;    

3.no time, began/started ,to;   4.How ,like;    5.nothing, but     6.wrong; 

7.difficulty, solving;    8.as soon ,as   ;9.In, my, opinion, ugly;  10.None, of ,difficult;   11.found, nothing ;   12.walks, to   13.cleaned ,with;   14.takes, by;     15.don’t, likes;   16.so, that, can’t; old ,enough ,to;           17.without ,any;             18.It ,seemed, he;   

19.too ,for ,to, isn’t, easy, enough;              20.without, your, help, unless, give, a, hand;   

21.can, easily, It’s, for, to;       22.because, of, illness;     23.made, decision;    

24.Could, have, discussion;     25.succeeds, acting;             26.were, surprised, at; 

27.made, interested;                    28.Neither, nor, can, Neither, of, can; either;

29.didn’t, go, until/before;   30.Not, only, but, also;   31.either, or;   32.can, neither, nor;   33.asked, them, to;   34.must, be, looked, after;   35.was, built;  36.is, grown;   37.is, spoken;   38.joined, ago; It’s, since, joined;            39.has, had, two, years, a, half;   

40.left, ago, has, been, away, from;    41.has, been, closed;   42.has, been, since; has, taught;

has, been, since;   43.not, to, be;    44.what, to, do;          45.when, to, start; 

46.in, order, to/ so, as, to;   47.asked, not, to;   48.what, I, was, doing, there;  49.that, is;   50.she, was, doing, then;   51.if/wether, she, likes;   52.a, quick;  53.blowing, strongly;   54.easily;    55.How, strongly, is, blowing;  56.What, an,    57.How, clever; What, a, clever;    58.Nobody, else, better    59.the, shortest, of; Everyone/Everybody, Nobody, as/so, as;       60.better, than, the, other, two;  61.smaller;   62.more, slowly; doesn’t, as/so, fast, as; 

63.less, popular;   64.longer, any, other;   65.less; more;   66.If, don’t, on, time;   67.If, are,    68.It, isn’t/ It’s, not, to;   69.It, that;  70.What’s, favorite;   71.What’s, uncle’s, job;   72.What, do, for;   73.What’s population;   74.mean;  75.is, rich, enough, to; can, afford, to

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