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娟紫的博客

一万年太久,只争朝夕。。。。

 
 
 

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痴迷音乐,电影,只会欣赏,喜欢诗词,难写佳篇杰作,爱好书法,写的一般,钟爱围棋,只会玩玩,热爱英语,走不出国门。就这样的一个人。。。。

网易考拉推荐

中学英语词法、句法、错误观辨析  

2012-04-12 22:35:16|  分类: 初中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

have a headache (头痛)

have a break=have a rest

[误]I bought the dictionary yesterday. A dictionary is very good.

[正]I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is very good.

[析]在文章中第一次提到某物时用不定冠词,而第二次提到时用定冠词。

[误]Please turn off lights before you leave.

[正]Please turn off the lights before you leave.

[析]虽然是第一次提到某物但说话双方均知其所指,也应用定冠词。

[误]There are nine planets around a sun.

[正]There are nine planets around the sun.

[析]世上独一无二的天体等名词前应加定冠词,如:the earth, the moon, the sun, the sky, the sea.

[误]I live on a second floor of this building.

[正]I live on the second floor of this building.

[析]在序数词,形容词最高级前要用定冠词。如:He is the oldest in the family.

[误]I want to learn the second language this term.

[正]I want to learn a second language this term.

[析]在序数词的含意不是顺序中的第一第二,而其意在于再学一个,再来一个时,应用a,本句的意思应为:这学期我要学一门第二外语。

[误]Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

[正]The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

[析]在河流名称前应加定冠词,如:the Yellow River(黄河)。

[误]Look, there are Alp.

[误]Look, there are the Alp.

[正]Look, there are the Alps.

[析]具体的某一座山不加定冠词,如:Mountain Tai.但在山名称前加定冠词后,其山名要加s,来表示山脉。the Alps即为阿尔卑斯山脉。如:The Alps are in the center of Europe.

[误]Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world.

[正]The Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world.

[析]报刊名称前应加定冠词。

[误]Rich are not always happy.

[正]The rich are not always happy.

[析]在形容词前加定冠词表示一类人,而在姓的前面加定冠词,姓后加s表示某一家,如:The turners are going to move to New York.

[误]I like to eat bread for breakfast. Bread sells in this shop is very good.

[正]I like to eat bread for breakfast. The bread sells in this shop is very good.

[析]物质名词特指时也应加定冠词。

[误]The sun rises in east.

[正]The sun rises in the east.

[析]在方向、方位前应用定冠词,如:in the east, in the west, in the north, in the south, in the direction 及in the past, in the future

[误]Do you know who invented telephone

[正]Do you know who invented the telephone

[析]在特定和专有事物或名称前要加定冠词,

如:the English Channel 英吉利海峡

the Panama Canal 巴拿马运河

the Suez Canal 苏伊士运河

[误]Would you please buy some food for the supper

[正]Would you please buy some food for supper

[析]泛指一日三餐前无定冠词。

[误]I like to climb the mountain in the autumn.

[正]I like to climb the mountain in autumn.

[析]一年四季前不用定冠词,如:Spring is the best season in a year.

[误]Sometimes my parents come to school to see me.

[正]Sometimes my parents come to the school to see me.

[析]有些名词被用作其本身原来所含目的时不加冠词,如:go to school上学,leave school(辍学),after school(放学),但如果当建筑物讲时应加冠词,如例句中其父母来校不是上学,而是看望孩子,则要加定冠词。又如,He was in hospital for two days.(他在医院住院两天了。)而:He went to the hospital to see his mother.他去医院看望他的母亲。

[误]I bought a same dictionary as she bought.

[正]I bought the same dictionary as she bought.

[析]在惯用法the same, the only, the very前的定冠词不可换为不定冠词。

[误]The police caught the thief by his arm.

[正]The police caught the thief by the arm.

[析]这是英文表达法与中文的明显不同之处,也是初学者极易忽视之处。在英语中的某些动词,如:catch(抓),take(拿),strike (打),pat(拍),hit(击),hold(握),pull(拉)…动词后应加人,再加介词on, by, in, with…之后要加定冠词,再加人体的某一部位。这时的定冠词千万不要换作his, her, their, 等词。

[误]He was paid by hour.

[正]He was paid by the hour.

[析]by和计量单位之间要有定冠词。这句话应译为:他的工资是按小时计算的。

[误]I went to New York by his car.

[正]I went to New York by car.

[正]I went to New York in his car.

[析]by仅仅与交通工具相连表示应用某种工具,而加了别的修饰词后其前面的介词也应作相应的转换。如:by car (坐小汽车)by taxi (坐出租车)by bike (骑自行车)by water (乘船)by air (乘飞机)by sea (乘船)

[误]Mary began to learn how to play piano when she was three.

[正]Mary began to learn how to play the piano when she was three.

[析]在乐器前要加定冠词,而在球类游戏之前则不要加冠词,如:They like to play bridge when they are free. (他们空闲时爱打桥牌)

[误]The little boy wanted to go to cinema.

[正]The little boy wanted to go to the cinema.

[析]英语中虽有一些名词与go to连用时不加定冠词,以表示该名词的内涵,如:go to school (上学),go to bed(睡觉)等,但去看电影则例外,要用go to the cinema.这也是语言的一个特点。

[误]I live at 105 the Lake street.

[正]I live at 105 Lake Street.

[析]街道名称前不用冠词。

[误]Next summer holiday I will go to country to live on a farm.

[正]Next summer holiday I will go to the country to live on a farm.

[析]country既作国家讲也作乡村讲。作乡村讲时,一定要加定冠词,而且只有单数形式,作国家讲时则可有复数形式。如:Japan is a country .Japan, China, India are Asian countries.

[误]The picture looks better at the distance.

[正]The picture looks better at a distance.

[析]at a distance意为“离开一定距离”。而in the distance为“远方,远处”。这样常用的词组有:

as a rule (照例)

in a hurry (匆忙)

in the morning/afternoon (上/下午)

in the sun (在阳光下)

in the rain (雨中)

in the same way (同样)

in the shade (在阴凉处)

in the day time (白天)

in the end (最终)

on the other hand (换句话说)

on the contrary (相反)

[误]The little boy and girl walk along the street a hand in a hand.

[正]The little boy and girl walk along the street hand in hand.

[析]这是英语中的习惯用法,如:

bit by bit (逐渐)

day after (by) day (一天又一天)

day and night (日日夜夜)

face to face (面对面)

from A to Z (自始至终)

from time to time (再三)

hand in hand (手拉手)

shoulder by shoulder (肩并肩)

(三) 例题解析

1   Mr Li is___ old worker.

A a  B  an  C some  D  /

[答案]B.

[析]an用于元音音素开始的单词前。

2   English is___  useful language in ___  world.

A  an, the   B  a, the    C  the, /    D   /,the

[答案]B.

[析]因useful的第一个音素是[j],它是辅音音素。

3   What ___   interesting book it is?

A a   B  an   C  the   D   /

[答案]B.

[析]这是感叹句,因为移到原一般句前面的强调部分中有可数名词book,所以应加冠词,而interesting的第一音素是元音所以要加an。

4   He will be back in ___ hour.

A  /  B  the  C  a  D   an

[答案]D.

[析]因hour的首字母h不发音。

5   There is ___ map in the classroom. ___  map is on the wall.

A a, A     B  the, The    C a, The   D the ,A

[答案]C.

[析]在文章中首次提到某人或某物时用不定冠词,而第二次再提到该物或人时应用定冠词。

6    Look at___ picture! There's___ house in it.

A  a ,a    B  the, the   C  a, the    D   the, a

[答案]D.

[析]虽然是第一次提到,但在句中的语言是让对方看某一特定的图画,所以应选择D。

7   There is ___ orange in the bottle.

A  a   B  an    C   the   D  /

[答案]D.

[析]这里的orange是指桔汁而不是一个个的桔子。 

8   Beijing is ___  capital of our country.

A  the   B  an   C   /   D  a

[答案]A.

[析]capital之后有of结构则要用定冠词。

9 If you work hard at English, you'll get ___ “A” in the test.

A  an   B  /   C  the  D  a

[答案]A.

[析]因字母A的第一音素是元音。

10   He usually goes to school on ___ foot.

A  a  B an  C  the  D   /

[答案]D.

[析]on foot意为走路上学,是习惯用法。

  

 


三、 代词

(一) 知识概要

英语中代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词。人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。请看下表

人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 

主格 i you  he she it we you they

宾格 me you him her it  us you them

物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。请看下表

人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的

形容词性 my  your  his her its ours your they

名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

  反身代词可见下表

人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 

反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself themselves

指示代词主要有this, that, these, those

疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which,

还有疑问副词when, how, where, why。

不定代词在初中课本中主要有some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either…

(二) 正误辨析

[误]Tom's mother is taller than my.

[正]Tom's mother is taller than mine.

[析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。

[误]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish them.

[正]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish it.

[析]在应用代词时,要注意人称,格与数的一致性。这里it所代替的是不可数名词homework, 所以应用it。

[误]He and you should go to the library to return the books.

[正]You and he should go to the library to return the books.

[析]这主要是英语习惯上的用法。当两个以上的人称代词并列时其排列顺序一般为you, he, she, I,而复数时为we, you, they:如男女并列时,应先男后女,如:He and she …如果在表示不好意思,承担责任时,单数时用,I, he, she, you, 复数时用They, you, we, 如:Tom and I are good friends.

You, he and I must go to play the game for our team this afternoon.

We, you and they have been there before.

I, he and you have to pay for it.

[误]He or his brother is doing their homework.

[正]He or his brother is doing his homework.

[析]由either…or, neither…nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前,复数名词放在后,要用复数代词,如:The teacher or his students will clean their classroom together.

[误]His brother is taller than him.

[正]His brother is taller than he.

[析]than是连词,其后应视为省略句,than he is.所以要注意区分其主格与宾格的用法。

I like you as much as she.

[正]I like you as much as her.

[析]as…as 其后也应看作是省略句。应为as I like her.所以应用宾格。而第一句应译为我像她那样喜欢你。两句语法都是对的但含义不同。

[误]Myself did it yesterday.

[正]I myself did it yesterday.

[正]I did it myself yesterday.

[析]反身代词不可作主语,但可以用作主语的同位语。

[误]Take care of ourselves.

[正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself)

[析]祈始句的主语应看作第二人称you.

[误]Please bring your daughter with yourself.

[正]Please bring your daughter with you.

[析]反身代词不能作介词宾语,除非是由不及物动词与介词组成的动词短语,如: The old woman spoke to herself.

[误]Make yourself home.

[正]Make yourself at home.

[析]这是英语中的习惯用法,意为“像在家里一样”。这样的用法还有:

enjoy oneself 玩得开心make yourself at home 像在家中一样

help yourself to something 自己拿某物lost oneself 迷路

seat oneself 就坐dress oneself 穿衣

[误]— Who's this speaking.— That's Mary.

[正]— Who's that speaking.— This is Mary.

[析]在电话用语中,this指讲话人自己,而that指对方。

[误]The days in summer are longer than this in winter.

[正]The days in summer are longer than those in winter.

[析]在比较句中往往为了避免重复,可以用that或those取代前面提到的事物,如是单数时用that,复数时用those,如:The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Chang Chun.

[误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read.

[析]在可数名词单数时可用so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that从句,也可用such+不定冠词+形容词+that从句。在不可数名词或可数名词复数时,只用such, 如:It is such good weather that I want to go swimming. They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在many, much, few, little这4个词前仅能用so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.而在so与that之间仅存形容词时,则不能用such,如:She is so sweet that everyone likes her.

[误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.

[正]I want to buy the same dictionary as yours.

[析]same与定冠词the是固定搭配不可更改。这样的用法还有all the same(仍然)。

[误]— I hope she might pass the exam.— I don't hope so.

[正]— I hope she might pass the exam.— I hope not.

[析]在作肯定回答时,I think so. I hope so. I believe so.但作否定回答时为:I don't think so. I hope/believe not.

[误]— He studied very hard this term.— So she did.

[正]— He studied very hard this term.— So did she.

[误]— English is difficult to learn.— So is it.

[正]— English is difficult to learn.— So it is.

[析]在对话中如果某一动作同时适用于两个主语,这时在答语中要用缩写且要用倒装句。如第一组句,即studied hard既适用于he,也适用于she.但答语仅仅是对前句的重复,即仅仅是第一句的缩写时则不要用倒装句。如第二组句子为:英语难学。答语为:是的,难学。这时缩写的答语不要用倒装句。

[误]Everyone should do one's best.

[正]Everyone should do his best.

[析]one作代词时,它的复数形式是ones,所有格形式是one's,反身代词为oneself.如果讲One should do one's best.则是对句。如果one与别的词组成其他词,如: someone, anyone, everyone或only one 则要用his/her,来作其所有格形式。

[误]— Who won the game?— None.

[正]— Who won the game?— No one.

[析]由who提问的句子的否定回答中的简略说法是no one,而由How many提问的句子的否定回答中的简略语是None.如:How many books are there? None.

[误]There are many trees on either sides of the street.

[正]There are many trees on either side of the street.

[正]There are many trees on both sides of the street.

[析]either作代词时由两个含意,其一是两者中随便哪一个,如:You can take either.其二是两者中的每一个。但要注意的是either后要加单数名词,如果作主语则谓语动词也要用单数形式。

[误]Either you or I are right.

[正]Either you or I am right.

[析]在either…or,或neither…nor连接两个主语时,其谓语动词要与和其相近的那个主语相配。

[误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor.

[正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor.

[析]neither用于两者中无一是,而none则用于多于两者中的人或事物无一是。

[误]He doesn't like Beijing opera. I don't like too.

[正]He doesn't like Beijing opera, I don't like either.

[析]either作为“也”讲时,要用于否定句中,而too则用于肯定句中。

[误]We like both this little boy.

[正]We both like this little boy.

[析]both作同位语时,它在句中的位置有:在be动词之后,如:We are both students.在实意动词之前,如:The parents both want to go to the cinema.用于第一助动词之后,如:We have both read these English novels.使用时要注意以下句子的实际含意:Both of us are not right.应译为:我们俩不都对。Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都不对。又如:I can't give you both of the books.意为:两本书我不能全给你,而I can't give you either of the books.才为:两本书我全不能给你。

[误]We each has a ticket for the concert.

[正]We each have a ticket for the concert.

[析]each作句子主语时其谓语动词要用单数形式,如:Each of us wants to learn English well,但each作同位语时,则应以原名词的数为准。

[误]Every of us has to pass the exam.

[正]Each of us has to pass the exam.

[析]every只可作形容词,不可作代词,而each既可作形容词,又可作代词,在作形容词时each侧重强调个体,而every 则侧重于全体。

[误]Everyone of us should do housework two hours a day.

[正]Every one of us should do housework two hours a day.

[析]everyone不可与of结构相连接使用,而every one则可以这样用。

[误]I should read English everyday.

[正]I should read English every day.

[析]要注意的是every day是“每天”,而everyday则是形容词为“日常的”。如:everyday English日常英语,everyday life日常生活。

[误]There are trees on every sides of the street.

[正]There are trees on each side of the street.                                       

[析]every用于三者或三者以上的每一个,而each用于二者或二者以上的每一个。因为街道只有两侧,所以只能用each而不能用every.

[误]All my parents are engineers.

[正]Both my parents are engineers.

[析]all用于三者或三者以上的全部,而both 则用于两者的全部。

[误]All of students might make some mistakes.

[正]All of the students might make some mistakes.

[正]All students might make some mistakes.

[析]非特指的名词前可用all但不可用all of结构,也就是讲all of结构后面的名词前一定要有定冠词。其他与all有关的习惯用法还有:

all the year round, all week, all day, all winter

[误]The all village was flooded.

[正]All the village was flooded.

[析]all作修饰语时要用在所有修饰词之前。

[误]The post office is on other side of the street.

[正]The post office is on the other side of the street.

[析]单数可数名词如在泛指某一个时用another,而特指时则要用the other,因街道只有两边,而不在这边必定是在另一边,所以要用特指。请参考下表的用法以便于记忆。

  单数 复数

泛指 another形容词 作定语 作名词

another代词 other others

特指 the other形容词

the other代词

 the other the others

[误]There are ten students here Where are the others students?

[正]There are ten students here.Where are the others?

[正]There are ten students here Where are the other students?

[析]the others=the other students.

[误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor.

[正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor.

[析]another用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station?I'm sorry. I have no idea. One may say it is quite near; another may say it is far from here.但在特指时则要用the other.它可以用作定语,the other one,也可以用作代词the other,但the other用作代词时它的含意一定是单数。如果指三者或者三者以上的情况时,则要用one…another…the other.或者one…a second…the third…

[误]Some people like sports. The others like reading.

[正]Some people like sports. Others like reading.

[析]在泛指的复数名词前用some…others…others…来表示某些人……某些人……某些人……。

[误]Please remember to water the flowers each other day.

[正]Please remember to water the flowers every other day.

[析]every other day为每隔一天。是习惯用法,不要随意改动。又如:on the other hand另一方面。

[误]Many know him, but few likes him.

[正]Many know him, but few like him.

[析]few用于可数名词,意为几乎没有,但few作主语时谓语动词则要用复数形式,而a few为有一些。

[误]You have few friends, haven't you?

[正]You have few friends, have you?

[析]little与few用于句中时,均要按否定句看待。

[误]Much of what you said are true.

[正]Much of what you said is true.

[析]much用于不可数名词,作主语时用单数谓语动词。而many用于可数名词,它作主语时用复数形式的谓语动词。

[误]This room is enough large for the students to live in.

[正]This room is large enough for the students to live in.

[析]enough 可以用作代词,如:There is enough of the food. 又如:Enough has been done for the work,但enough 还可以作形容词来修饰名词,这时enough可以放在名词之前,也可放在名词之后,如:money enough 与enough money都是对的。但当enough作副词修饰形容词时,则只能置于形容词之后了。

[误]I want any books to read. Do you have any?

[正]I want some books to read. Do you have any?

[析]按照语法any用于疑问句和否定句,而some用于肯定句。

[误]Would you like any thing to drink?

[正]Would you like something to drink?

[析]在由would you like发出的问句中,表达了说话者真心实意要为对方提供些饮料,或在说话者想得到对方的肯定答复时,在疑问句中要用some而不用any。

[误]Someone want to meet you.

[正]Someone wants to meet you.

[析]不定代词应被看作单数,即使用and连接两个不定代词,也要看作单数,如:Anyone and everyone has the right. 任何人,每一个人都有这样的权力。

[误]New York is much colder in winter than before.

[正]It is much colder in New York in winter than before.

[析]it常常用在英文的句子中来代表时间、距离、天气、自然现象,或用在句中作形式主语或宾语,如:

It is ten o'clock now. (代时间)

It is far from here to the airport. (代距离)

It is very hot.(代天气)

It is very difficult to learn English well. (作形式主语)

We found it very difficult to answer the question. (作形式宾语)

[误]Be careful. Don't drink too many.

[正]Be careful. Don't drink too much.

[析]这里much所代的应是饮料或水,所以应为不可数名词。 

(三) 例题解析

1 These are ___books. Yours are over there.

A I   B  my   C  me   D mine

[答案]B.

[析]这里应用形容词性物主代词。

2 —___  is she?

— She is a teacher.

A   What    B  How    C  Who    D   Where

[答案]A.

[析]这里的四个疑问词放在问句中全都成立,但其意义不同。What is she?应译为“她的工作是什么?”或“她是做什么的?”而How is she?应译为“她身体如何?”而Who is she?应译为“她是谁?”其答语应为“她叫什么名字。”而Where is she?应为“她在什么地方?”由答语决定了这道题的选择。

3___ is wrong with my watch. It has stopped___.

A  Something, working   B  Something, to work

C    Any thing, working   D Anything, to work

[答案]A.

[析]因为是肯定句所以应用Something,其后由于表停止工作了,则stop后要用动名词。

4  Mary, help ___to the bananas, please.

A  you   B your   C  yourself   D yourselves

[答案]C.

[析]help oneself to something为“自己拿某物”。yourself为“你一个人”,而yourselves为“你们”。

5 —___ do you go to school every day?

— By bus.

A  How  B  Why    C   When    D   Where

[答案]A.

[析]这题的答案是由问句决定的。

6  My skirt is___  popular than___.

A    much, her   B  much, hers     C   more, her      D  more, hers

[答案]D.

[析]因句中有than,所以应选用比较级,而than后要选用名词性物主代词。

7 — Can you speak English?

— Yes, but only___.

A  few    B  a few     C   little     D    a little

[答案]D.

[析]因会讲某种语言的多少要用a little,把它看作不可数名词对待,此答语为:是的,但仅仅会讲一点。

8   Mr. Smith is an old friend of___.

A  I        B  me     C  my    D mine

[答案]D.

[析]这里应选名词性物主代词,这也是英语的一种习惯用法,而不要选择my。

9 “ ___do you hear from your parents?”

“About once a month.”

A How long    B   How many

C How often  D   How much

[答案]C.

[析]How often问的是某一动作发生的频率,即在单位时间内发生多少次。

10  Mr Green wouldn't say ___at the meeting.

A  everything   B  nothing     C  anything   D  something

[答案]C.

[析]在否定句中应用anything

11 “Mum, Ann's coming tonight. Let's give her ___to eat.”

“Good idea!”

A   anything nice    B nice anything

C   something nice  D nice something

[答案]C.

[析]肯定句中用something而不用anything,不定代词的修饰词应放其后而不要放在其前面。

12 — When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow evening?

— I don't mind. ___time is OK.

A   Some   B  Neither   C  Either   D  Both

[答案]C.

[析]因如选用both则名词要用复数名词,也要用复数谓语动词,由于答语前有I don't mind 则决定不能选择neither.

13 This is not her kite, but___.

A  he's  B   him  C   he    D   his

[答案]D.

[析]要注意“他的”名词性物主代词与形容词性物主代词是同形的。

14 Don't worry, Mum! ___ news is good news. I'm sure daddy will come back soon.

A   No    B  Many     C Those    D Two

[答案]A.

[析]这是一条谚语,即没有消息就是好消息。 

15 Mary has six apples. Her brother has three. She has ___apples than he.

A  few B  many  C  more    D    fewer

[答案]C.

[析]由于是比较级,根据题意应选“多于”而不是“少于”。 

16 There isn't ___in today's newspaper.

A anything interesting

B something interesting

C nothing interesting

D interesting anything

[答案]A.

[析]由于句子是否定句,应选择anything,而且不定代词的修饰语应放在其后面。

17 September 10th is___ Day?

A  Teacher      B Teachers     C Teacher's    D Teachers'

[答案]D.

[析]教师节Teachers' Day,儿童节 Children's Day, 妇女节 Women's Day

18 — In England, people eat a lot of “takeaway” food. What about people in your country?

—___

A So we do.  B We do so.  C So do we.   D We so do.

[答案]C.

[析]在答语中用简略方式表达上文的一个动作同样适用于另一个主语时,则要采用倒装句,但如果仅仅是对上句的重复则不要倒装。

19 — Shall we go into that shop and have a look?

— Sorry. I won't. I have ___to do there.

A  everything     B anything     C  something   D nothing

[答案]D.

[析]这个答案的选择应由上下两句对话内容作出决定。

20— Oh, dear! Who broke the glass?

—___ Sam ___Bruce. It was the cat.

A Both, and    B Not, but     C  Neither, nor   D Either, or

[答案]C.

[析]neither…nor意为既不……也不……

21 The students are having a good time in the park. Some are drawing by the lake.___are climbing the hill.

A Others  B Other  C Another  D The other

[答案]A.

[析]这里因为是代替复数名词,所以应用名词性的复数代名词。

22 She is not a nurse. I'm not___.

A  also  B either C neither   D too

[答案]B.

[析]在否定句中该用either,而不用too和also.

23 I have two pencils. One is red,___ is blue.

A  the other   B another     C others  D the others

[答案]A.

[析]两者中的另一个应为特指。而且应为单数形式的代名词。而another是泛指单数代名词。others是泛指复数代名词,而the others是特指复数代名词。

24 Sorry, I can't answer your question.

I know ___about the subject.

A little   B a little       C few     D a few

[答案]A.

[析]中文讲我对此知道的不多,而英文中要用little。其含意为否定句。

25 My sister doesn't like skating___.

A So do I           B So I don't

C Neither I don't  D  Neither do I

[答案]D.

[析]这是表达上面否定句中的动作,也同样不适合

于第二个人。所以要用neither,并要采用倒装句。

26 Yesterday morning there were only three boys in our room,___.

A  you, he and I      B  I, you and he

C  he, I and you      D you, I and he

[答案]A.

[析]这是若干人称代词并列时的顺序问题。请参看辨析中的例子。

27 All the students are busy,  so___of   them will go to the concert.

A many     B little    C a few  D few

[答案]D.

[析]student为可数名词。

28 The teacher gave ___student a new book.

A nobody   B both   C each     D any

[答案]C.

[析]both其后的名词应为复数,而any用于疑问句和否定句中只有each可以修饰单数可数名词。

29 Black is neither a teacher ___a worker.

A or    B either     C nor     D and

[答案]C.

[析]neither…nor为“既不……也不……”的固定搭配。

30 Our teacher gave us___on studying.

A many advices     B some advices

C an advice           D some advice

[答案]D.

[析]advice为不可数名词。some可用于可数或不可数名词之前。

31 There are two foreign friends in the park. One ___is from Japan, is from America.

A other    B others       C the other      D the others

[答案]C.

[析]因为是两者中的一个,所以另一个应用单数特指代词。

32 Are there ___on the table?

A some cups     B any cup      C  some cup       D   any cups

[答案]D.

[析]此句是疑问句,应用any cups, 因提问时的be动词用的是are。

33 I've just bought five stamps. One is a German stamp, ___are American stamps.

A the other    B the others     C other     D others

[答案]B.

[析]此空应填入主语。又因其范围已定,所以应选特指的代名词。the other只能用作单数,而others是泛指复数代名词,故只能选B。

34 It was___ fine day that they went to the park.

A a so   B so a      C such a     D a such

[答案]C.

[析]在单数可数名词前可以有两种表达法,即such+不定冠词+形容词+可数名词单数形式,如:such a good day,或者用so加形容词+不定冠词+可数名词单数,如:so good a day.

35 At that time the train was slow and noisy. So___people liked taking trains.

A little    B  a little      C  few      D  a few

[答案]C.

[析]这是英文的表达法与中文不同之处。中文讲只有少数人喜欢坐火车,英文要选用“few”。

36 We must help and understand each___.

A other  B another    C others   D  the other

[答案]A.

[析]each other意为“互相”,是习惯用语。

37 ___is difficult to walk on the moon.

A Man     B  One      C  That       D  It

[答案]D.

[析]这里的真正主语应为不定式to walk on the moon.而形式主语只能用it.

38 Jane has sent several letters, but ___of them have been answered.

A all    B both    C either   D  none

[答案]D.

[析]several letters意为“若干信件”,应看作多于两者,则在A、D中作选择,仅D符合句意。

39 I don't know ___about the new headmaster.

A something     B everything     C nothing     D anything

[答案]D.

[析]否定句中应用anything.

40___ of the students in the whole class could do this physics question.

A No    B  None    C Not     D  Neither

[答案]B.

 


四、 形容词、副词

(一) 知识概要

形容词的用法很活跃,在英语中用处也很多,但英语中修饰可数名词和不可数名词的修饰语和词组有时不同,要特别加以注意。下面将初中学习阶段中遇到的修饰可数名词的词和词组归纳如下:many, no, several, some, a few, a lot, lots, plenty, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of, enough。而修饰不可数名词的词或词组如下:much, no, some, a lot, a great deal, lots, plenty, a lot of, plenty of。其中some, no, a lot of, plenty of既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词。英语中形容词与副词有原级、比较级、最高级之分,其规则如下:

构词法 原 级 比较级 最高级                       加er,或est Tall

young    taller

younger

 tallest

youngest

 

只加r或st nice

large

 nicer

larger

 nicest

largest

 

重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写该字母加er、est big

fat

hot

 bigger

fatter

hotter

 

 biggest

fattest

hottest

 

不规则变化的形容词或副词:

原 级 比较级 最高级

good better best

Well better best

bad worse worst

badly worse worst

many more most

most more most

little less lest

far farther

further

 farthest

furthest

 

old older

elder

 oldest

eldest

 

要注意的是许多形容词同时又是副词,如:back, all, alone, either, far, high, slow等。而有些形容词则要经过一定变化才能转为副词,其规律如下:

构词法 形容词 副 词

一般加ly Careful

kind

 carefully

kindly

 

尾是y时将y变成i加ly Happy

busy

easy

 Happily

busily

easily

 

其 他 true

terrible

full

possible

shy

whole

 truly

terribly

fully

possibly

shyly

wholly

 

在学习过程中要注意其变化。

此外并不是所有副词都可以修饰比较级和最高级形容词。能修饰比较级的有:much, yet, far, still, a great deal, even 和a little. 能修饰最高级的有:the very, much the, far等。

(二) 正误辨析

[误] The young likes playing football very much.

[正] The young like playing football very much.

[析] 定冠词加形容词表示一类人,应作复数看待。而定冠词加形容词表示抽象事物时则要看作单数,如:The beautiful is not always kindness.美丽并不总代表善良。

[误] The danger has gone, so the worst are over.

[正] The danger has gone, so the worst is over.

[析] 意为:"危险已经过去,最困难的状况已结束。"用定冠词加最高级形容词作主语时应看作单数形式。

[误] It is the gold age of the young.

[正] It is the golden age of the young.

[析] golden在英语中多用于比喻,如:golden hair金发,gulden voice金嗓子。而gold多用于表达金质的,如:a gold bar金条,a gold coin金币,但gold fish 金鱼例外。

[误] She is a warm heart woman.

[正] She is a warmhearted woman.

[析] 英语形容词的构词法很多,其中之一是由形容词,或数词,加名词加ed构成,如:warmhoarted 热心肠的,whitehaired 白毛的

[误] There is an alive fish in the pool.

[正] There is a living fish in the pool.

[析] 在初中范围内所学到的以a字母开头的形容词一般不能作定语,只能作表语。如:The fish is alive.(鱼还活着)这样的形容词有:alive, alike, alone, asleep, afraid, awake等。

[误] The ill man nearly died.

[正] The sick man nearly died.

[析] ill一般不作定语来形容某人有病,而要用sick,但作表语时则都可以。如:He is ill sick, ill作定语时则另有他意,如:ill luck (厄运),ill nature(天性恶劣),ill temper(心绪不好)

[误] I have important something to tell you.

[正] I have something important to tell you.

[析] 不定代词something, anyone, somebody…在用形容词修饰时,形容词应放其后。但要注意thing则不是不定代词,不符合上述规律。如:I have an important thing to tell you.

[误] I'll be free on next Sunday.

[正] I'll be free next Sunday.

[析] 在表达将来时的时候:next Sunday, next week, next year或last Sunday last week, last year前都不加介词。

[误] The girl is twoyear old.

[正] The girl is two years old.

[正] She is a twoyearold girl

[析] 由连字符连接若干名词、数词……组成的形容词,在学习时要记住两点,其一是这些词中的名词都不要用复数形式,如:twothousandword report(两千字的报告);其二是这样构成的形容词只能作定语,即用于名词之前,而不能作表语。

[误] The foreigners like those little beautiful Chinese paintings.

[正] The foreigners like those beautiful little Chinese paintings.

[析] 在名词前若有几个形容词作修饰语时,其顺序如下。

1. 指示代词,定冠词 2. 数量词 3. 性质词 4. 大小 5. 形状 6. 老少,新旧 7. 颜色 8. 材料

但要注意的是英语的习惯是一个名词前的形容词一般不要多于三个。

如: What a pretty little white horse!

Those first few short English stories were not difficult to understand. 

[误] The best way to learn English good is to speak with Englishman every day.

[正] The best way to learn English well is to speak with Englishman every day.

[析] good是形容词,这里是修饰动词speak的,所以应用副词well,但well作形容词讲时只作身体好。如:He is well.(他身体很好)。He is good.(他是个好人)。

[误] The children play on the grass nappyly.

[正] The children play on the grass happily

[析] 多音节y结尾的形容词变为副词时应将y变为i再加ly.

[误] The teacher looked angry at the students.

[正] The teacher looked angrily at the students.

[析] 英语中感观动词后面要接形容词,这时它是修饰主语的,如:The food smells good.食物闻起来很香。The teacher looked angry 老师看起来很生气。 而此句的意思为:"老师生气地看着学生",所以应用副词形式。

[误] He worked with me friendly.

[正] He was friendly to me.

[析] 不是所有结尾是ly的词都是副词,但friendly是形容词,这样的词还有lovely, lonely, costly, lively…monthly weekly…。但其中有些词既是副词,又是形容词,如:early, hourly, monthly…

[误] You can speak free in front of your friends.

[正] You can speak freely in front of your friends.

[析] free作为形容词意为"自由的,有空闲的,免费的"。作为副词讲则是"免费"之意。而freely作为副词则是"自由的,随便的"。这些要注意的词还有:hard 努力,艰苦 hardly 几乎不 late 迟,晚lately 最近的,最新的 near 近 nearly 几乎like 像 likely 几乎

[误] They must have arrived till now.

[正] They must have arrived by now.

[析] by now是用于表达到目前为止某一动作已经发生,所以应用瞬间动词。而till now是强调某一动作一直持续到现在,所以一定要用持续性动词。must have+过去分词是对过去某一事情所作的肯定推测。

[误] Someone called you right now.

[正] Someone called you just now.

[析] just now有两个意思,其一是"刚才",其二是"现在",而right now只能用于现在的状态。just则用于完成时态,如: I have just finished my homework.

[误] My father will be back from America at present.

[正] My father will be back from America presently.

[析] presently有两个意思:其一是最近,不久,其二在美语中是现在之意,与at present相同。而for the present为暂时,如: I teach English in the school for the present.

[误] I'll be back at the moment.

[正] I'll be back in a moment.

[析] at the moment 其意为"现在,当时",而in a moment意为"马上过一会",与in a minute意思相近。

[误] The train from Shanghai will arrive here in time.

[正] The train from Shanghai will arrive here on time.

[析] on time为"准时",而in time有两个含意。其一是"及时",如:The doctor arrived in time。其二是"将来,终究"。

[误] I met an old friend sometimes last month.

[正] I met an old friend sometime last month.

[析] Sometime 过去,或者将来某时。Sometimes 有时

如: Sometimes I go to school by bus.Some time 一些时间 

如: I need sometime to do my homework. Some times 几次 

如: I went to Shanghai sometimes this month.

at times 有时,偶尔

at all times 经常

some other time 改天 

[误] I had met an old friend three days ago.

[正] I had met an old friend three days before.

[正] I met an old friend three days ago.

* ago 用在时间状语中时,主句中谓语动词一般用过去时,而before用于时间状语时则主句的谓语动词宜用完成时态。

[误] He studied very hard. and at the end he passed the exam.

[正] He studied very hard, and in the end he passed the exam.

[析] in the end=at last 意为"最终,终于",表达经过若干努力而达到的结果。而at the end是在某事的结束时如何如何,如:At the end of class, the teacher gave us some story books。

[误] I will come here to help you each three days.

[正] I will come here to help you every three days.

[析] every three days 为"每三天",即每隔二天,而every other day为每隔一天。

[误] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday. and I didn't go, too.

[正] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday and I didn't go either.

[析] 英语中表示"也",有4个字,also, as well, too, either,但either用于否定句中,而前3个用于肯定句中。在肯定句中too与as well一般要用在句尾,而also则可用于句中。如:She went to the party and her boy friend went there too. 又如: I've also read her other novels.

[误] We should help the poor girl in anyway.

[正] We should help the poor girl in any way.

[析] anyway为"不管怎么"讲,"无论如何",如:What a terrible accident, anyway no one was hurt.

any way 为"任何方式"。这种常见的错误还发生在以下几组词中,如:

everyday 日常的 every day 每天

faraway 遥远的 far away 远离

altogether 总计 all together 一块,大家一起

already 已经 all ready 全准备好了

[误] You can come to the doctor's at anytime.

[正] You can come to the doctor's at any time.

[析] anytime 是副词 而any time中的time是名词。

[误] She said nearly nothing.

[正] She said almost nothing.

[析] nearly 与 almost的含意相近,在很多场合可以互换,但在否定词前用almost。

[误] There are too much mistakes in your homework.

[正] There are too many mistakes in your homework.

[析] too much 后接不可数名词,如:There is too much water for the flowers. 而too many 后加可数名词,much too 后面加形容词,如:It is much too difficult to learn English well.

[误] It is late enough that we can go home now.

[正] It is late enough for us to go home now.

[析] 要注意的是enough后面一般不接从句而接不定式,或不定式的复合结构:for somebody to do something。

[误] The twins are very alike.

[正] The twins are much alike.

[析] 用a为首字母的形容词不能用very修饰,一般要用much来修饰。

[误] - How long does he write to his parents?

- Once a week. 

[正] - How often does he write to his parents?

- Once a week. 

[析] 英文与中文表达法不同,隔多长时间办一次某事,实际上问的是该事发生的频率,所以要用how often。

[误] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call up you.

[正] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call you up.

[析] 当动词词组的宾语是人称代词时则一定要放于动词之后,如果是名词则可以放在词组其后。如:I want to watch TV. Please turn on the TV. 也可以讲: Please turn the TV on.

[误] He drove quickly his new car.

[正] He drove his new car quickly.

[析] 副词在句中的位置很活,但主要有以下几种用法:①实意动词之前,如:He quickly give me the answer. ② 在be动词之后,如:The little boy is often late for class. ③ 第一助动词之后,如:This book has almost been finished. ④ 在单独使用的be动词和助动词之前,如: Can you help me this afternoon? I certainly can.但是无论如何也不能将副词置于动词与宾语之间,如果是宾语从句或是很长的名词

词组作宾语则才可以这样用:

He heard clearly what the teacher said.

[误] The children came late yesterday to the cinema.

 
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