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动词时态标志词  

2012-03-09 19:26:59|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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动词时态标志词

1.一般现在时
    (1) always, usually, often, sometimes 
  (2) every day, every morning, every Saturday, every time
  (3) in the morning, on Saturdays 
  (4) once a week, three times, a day, twice a year 

2.一般过去时 
       (1) yesterday, the day before yesterday, yesterday morning   (evening,  afternoon)
  (2) last time, last Friday, last term, last month 
    (3) 2 hours ago, a week ago, 3 years ago
  (4) just now = a moment ago 

(5)in 1989

(6)at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time

(7) in the past

3.现在进行时
  (1).now.Look.Listen. 
  (2).these days 
  (3).at that time.at that moment.this time yesterday evening
  4.过去进行时 
       (1).at that time.at that moment.this time yesterday evening

(2)以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语

5.一般将来时 
           (1) tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tomorrow morning (evening, afternoon) 
           (2) next time, next Friday, next term, next month
           (3) in +一段时间

          in + 一段时间 ' s + time

    (4) soon = right away = at once 

     (5) by the end of + 将来时间 
6.过去将来时 

     (1)the next time/ Friday/ term/ month
            (2)the following month (week…),
     7..现在完成时 
         (1) already, yet, ever, never, just, before
         (2) for + 一段时间,

   since + 过去某一点时间 ;

   since +从句 (一般过去式);

    since + 一段时间 + ago

    in / during the past / last  + 一段时间 

(3)recently  ,lately

(4)so far

8..过去完成时
       (1).by, by the time (of), by the end of + 过去时间 
       (2)when. before. after…….+过去时间

 (3)up till then (直到时);    up until last night(直到昨晚)等。

(4)already, just, ever, yet 等。


英语单选常见时态类标志词

1.       It’s the first time that……….

           (从句中用现在完成时)

         It was for the first time that………

         (强调句,对状语for the first time进行强调)

         It’s (high) time that……..

        (从句中用过去时或should do)

 2.       It’s the same with sb. / So it is with sb.表示某人也如此

        (用于前句中既有肯定又有否定或两个不同类的谓语动词)

 3.…be about to do / be doing……when…….

       正要做/正在做……就在那时…….

 4   A is twice / three times as +原级+as B

A is twice / three times the n. of B.

    A is twice / three times +比较级+than B

 5.   It’s a waste of time / money doing / to do…

It’s no use / good doing………

It’s possible / probable / (un) likely that……….

It makes great / no sense to do……做某事很有/没意义

 6.     There’s no use / good doing…….

There’s no sense / point (in) doing……

There is no need for sth. / to do…….

There is (no) possibility that…………(同位语从句)

 7.The+比较级…….., the+比较级………越…….., 越…….

注意:前半句为从句,用一般现在时代替将来时;

 8.    It seems / appears ( to sb. ) that sb…….

       在某人看来某人………

     = Sb. seems / appears to be / to do / to be doing / to have   done……..

It seems / looks as if……….好象/似乎……..

 9.It (so) happened that sb. ……..某人碰巧……..

= Sb. happened to be / to do / to be doing / to have done…..

10.It is said / thought / believed / hoped / supposed …….that sb………

=Sb. is said to be / to do / to be doing / to have done……….

  (注意:这种句型里如带动词hope则不能变成简单句,因为无hope sb. to do结构)

 12     …….such…….that…….如此…….以致于

      (引导结果状语从句)

      …….such……..as……像……..的这种……

        (as为关系代词,引导定语从句,在从句里充当主、宾、表)

 13. Do you mind if I do sth.?  /  Would you mind if I did sth.?

 14. The chance is that……../ (The )Chances are that……….很可能…….

 15.Check / Make sure / See to it  / See that……..

     (从句中常用一般现在时) 确信/务必……..

 16.     depend on it that……..取决于

         see to it that…….负责/设法做到…….

注意:除了except / but / in等介词可以直接接that从句,其它介词后必须用it做形式宾语;

 17.  It is / was +介词短语/ 从句/ 名词/代词等+that………

      How / When / Where / Why is / was it that………..?

注意:此句型为强调句,当被强调的为表示人的词时,还可用who连接;强调主语时,从句后的谓语动词应与前面的主语保持一致;注意与定语从句的区别)

 18   .How is it that……..

   (这几个句型都表示“怎么会…….?” “怎么 发生的?”)

  How come+从句?

  How does / did sth. come about? ( How did it come about that…….?)

如:How come you are late again?

 19.    There seems / appears / happens to be / must be / can’t be / is (are, was, were) said to be / is (are, was, were) thought to be…….

表示 “.似乎有/碰巧有/一定有/不可能有/ 据说有/认为有……..”

      介词(如of )there being

      want / wish / expect there to be要/希望/期待有……..

      adj. / adv. enough for there to be…….足够…….会有…….

注意:there being / there to be为there be的非谓语形式;

      It is said / thought that there is / are……=There is / was / are / were said (thought) to be…….

如:

I have never dream of there being such a good chance for me.

It won’t be cold enough for there to be a frost tonight.

 20. 疑问词+插入语+陈述语序?

Who do you think he’ll have attend the meeting?

21. But for + n. / pron.,  sb. / sth. would (not) have done…..要不是……., 某人早就……

(表示虚拟语气)=If it had not been for…..,……./ If there had not been ……., ……..

 22.    It won(’t) be long before +从句

(从句中用一般现在时)不久/很久就要…….

 It was (not) long before+从句

(从句中用一般过去时)不久/很久才……..

 23.    Those who………….

      (从句及主句中谓语动词用复数形式).

      Anyone who…………= Whoever………..

      (从句及主句中谓语动词用单数形式)

 24…….主句(一般现在时或过去时)…...when从句….(might / should do 或might / should have done) 表示”对比”,意思为 “本该……(可)而却”,主句中为陈述语气,从句里为虚拟语气,

如:

Why are you here when you should be in school?你本该上学的怎么在这儿?

He stopped trying when he might have succeeded .本该已成功了他却停止努力了.

 25.    There is ./ Sb. have no doubt that………

         (同位语从句,that不可省略)

        There is / Sb. have some doubt whether……..

        (同位语从句不可用if)

        Sb. doubt if / whether…….

        Sb. don’t doubt that………

 26    . immediately / directly / instantly / the moment +从句

          on / upon + n. / doing

          No sooner had sb. done than …….(过去时)

          Hardly had sb. done  when……..(过去时)

         注意:这几个结构都表示“一…….就”;

27.  every time / each time / the last time / the first time / next time +从句

(名词性短语引导时间状语句)

anywhere / everywhere +从句

(相当于wherever引导的地点状语从句)

You can go anywhere you like.

Next time you come, please bring your son along.

 28.If only / I  wish +从句

(用过去类时态) 表示虚拟语气, “要是…….就好了” “但愿……就好了!”

29   .Considering + n. 或 pron. 或 that从句 / Seeing that……….考虑到/鉴于…….

Given + n. / pron作状语,表示 “在有……的情况下” “如果有” “假定”,有时也表示”考虑到”

Seeing (that) he refused to help us, there is no reason why we should help him now.

Given good health, I hope to finish the work this year.

Given their inexperience / that they are inexperienced, they’ve done a good job.

30.There was a time when…….曾经有那么一度……….

31.other than与no, not, none等否定词连用,表示肯定意思,如:

It was none other than Mr. Smith.这正是Smith先生.

 32.   Not until…….did / do/ does / will sb. do……

It was / is not until ……that sb………

 33.It’s (un) like sb. to do / to have done……

做某事很像某人/ 做某事可不像某人

 34.It remains to be seen Wh--words ……..

是否…….还有待于看.(不用that, if作连接词)

 35.It only remains for sb. to do……

剩下的只是要某人做某事.

We’ve got everything ready. It only remains for you to come to dinner.

 36.One moment……., and now………

刚才一会儿还在做……而现在却……..

 37.Not all / both / everyone………表示部分否定

 38. Such is / are……..这(些)就是…….

(谓语动词单复数由后面名词决定)

 39.    I’d rather (not) do / have done……我宁愿…..

    I’d rather +从句(从句中用过去时或过去完成时)

 40. It’s important / necessary / strange / surprising….+that……

(用陈述语气或should do)

 41. I like / hate / appreciate it that / when等从句

(it表示后面从句的这种情况)

I appreciate it if you will give me a hand.

 42. By the time +从句(一般现在时/过去时),主句(将来完成时/过去完成时)

 43………., as is often the case with sb. / as is usual with sb.

(as引导非限制性定语从句)

 44 in case / lest / for fear that…….

(从句中用陈述语气或should do)

 45.While置于句首可表示As long as 或 Although

While there is life there is hope.

While I admit his good points, I can see his bad ones.

 46.   can not ( never) ……too +adj. (adv. ) / adj. (adv.) + enough “越……越好”“非常”

   too + adj. ( anxious / eager / willing / ready / glad等)+to do….表示肯定意思

I can’t thank you enough.我非常感激你.

He was too glad to see his father.=He was very glad to see his father.

 47. not / neve等表示否定的词与比较级连用表示最高级,如:

-----Do you agree with his suggestion?

-------I can’t agree more.

 48. What if……..要是…….怎么办?

What if he doesn’t come tomorrow?

 49. more……..than与其…….不如……..

He is more nervous than frightened.   

 50. It is / has been +一段时间+since从句

(从句中如为延续性动词,则实际表示的意思相反)

It is two years since he drank.他不喝酒已两年了.

巧用时态标志

任何一种时态都有潜在的标志,巧用这些标志可以妙解时态试题。   

一,巧用特定时间点,妙解进行时试题  

进行时往往表示某一特定动作在特定时间点正在进行。过去进行时表示某一动作在过去某一特定时间点正在进行,这一过去特定时间点就是过去进行时存在的标志。过去特定时间点可由just now,at eight o’clock yesterday evening,just at that time,at the time,at this time yesterday等直接时间状语和when,while,as引导的时间状语从句体现,也可由上下文语境体现。  ——Did you see a man in black pass by just now?
  ——No,sir. I ____ a newspaper.(NMET2007四川)
  A. readB. was readingC. would readD. am reading
  析:B。just now暗示空档表达“刚才正在读”的动作概念,为过去进行时标志,因此该空应填was reading。  

——It was really very kind of you to give me a lift home.
  ——Oh,don’t mention it. I ____ past your house anyway.
  (NMET2007北京)
  A. was comingB. will comeC. had comeD. have come
  析:A。分析语境逻辑可知,空档表达“刚才正路过”的动作概念,为过去进行时的标志,因此该空应填was coming。  

——Is there anything wrong,Bob? You look sad.
  ——Oh,nothing much. In fact,I ____ of my friends back home. (NMET2007全国卷Ⅱ)
  A. have just thoughtB. was just thinking
  C. would just thinkD. will just be thinking
  析:B。分析语境逻辑可以推出空档表达“刚才正在想念”的动作概念,因此应用过去进行时。  现在进行时表示某一动作现在正在进行,因此现在这一特定时间点就是现在进行时存在的标志。现在这一特定时间点常由now,at present等时间状语或上下文语境体现。  

——What’s that terrible noise?
  ——The neighbors ____ for a party. (NMET2004北京)
  A. have preparedB. are preparing
  C. prepareD. will prepare
  析:B。What’s that terrible noise?暗示邻居此刻正在为晚会做准备,它实际上是该句运用现在进行时的标志,因此该空应填are preparing。  将来进行时表示某一动作在将来某一特定时间点正在进行,因此将来某一特定时间点就是将来进行时存在的标志。将来某一特定时间点可由at six o’clock tomorrow morning,at this time tomorrow等时间状语或上下文语境体现。  At this time tomorrow ____ over the Atlantic.(NMET2003北京)
  A. we’re going to flyB. we’ll be flying
  C. we’ll flyD. we’re to fly
  析:B。at this time tomorrow属未来特定时间点,为将来进行时标志,因此该空应填we’ll be flying。  

二,巧用标准对照时间点,妙解完成时试题  众所周知,现在完成时表示某一动作相对于现在来说已经完成,或发生在过去某一时刻的动作一直延续到现在,因此现在是现在完成时标准对照时间点,寻找这一标准对照时间点可以妙解现在完成时试题。 

 Danny ____ hard for long to realize his dream and now he is popular.(NMET2007福建)
  A. worksB. is workingC. has workedD. worked
  析:C。and now he is popular表明Danny自过去某一时刻开始努力工作的动作到现在为止已有很长时间,因此该空应用现在完成时。  

——____ you ____ him around the museum yet?
  ——Yes. We had a great time there. (NMET2007江苏)
  A. Have; shownB. Do; showC. Had; shownD. Did; show
  析:A。yet暗示问句表示“到现在为止你领他参观了博物馆吗?”,因此空档应用现在完成时。  过去完成时表明某一动作相对于过去某一特定时刻来说已经完成,或发生在过去某一时刻的动作一直延续到过去另一时刻,其标准对照时间点为过去某一特定时刻,寻找这一标准对照时间点可以妙解过去完成时试题。 

 I ____ there little more than a week when I set to work with the scientist.(NMET2007陕西)
  A. would beB. have beenC. had beenD. will be
  析:C。分析语境逻辑可知,题干表示“开始和这个科学家工作时我已经在那儿呆了一个星期多一点”,因此空档应用过去完成时。  

——Did Alan enjoy seeing his old friends yesterday?
  ——Yes,he did. He ____ his old friends for a long time.
   (NMET2007重庆)
  A. didn’t seeB. wouldn’t seeC. hasn’t seenD. hadn’t seen
  析:D。分析语境逻辑可知,该空表示“昨天以前没有看到”,因此应用过去完成时。 

 They became friends again that day. Until then,they ____ to each other for nearly two years. (NMET2007安徽)
  A. didn’t speakB. hadn’t spoken
  C. haven’t spokenD. haven’t been speaking
  析:B。由语境逻辑可以推出空档表示“在became friends所表示的时间之前几乎两年没有讲话”,因此应用过去完成时。  现在/过去完成进行时往往表示发生在过去某一特定时刻的动作一直延续到现在/过去另一特定时刻,并且在这段时间之内动作一直没有停止过,因此现在/过去某一特定时刻也是现在/过去完成进行时的标准对照时间点。  

——I have got a headache.(NMET2007江西)
 ——No wonder. You ____ in front of that computer too long.
  A. workB. are working
  C. have been workingD. worked
  析:C。分析语境逻辑可知,空档表示在到现在为止too long所体现的时间范围之内主人公工作的动作一直没有停止过,因此应用现在完成进行时。  The crazy fans ____ patiently for two hours,and they would wait till the movie star arrived. (NMET2004重庆)
  A. were waitingB. had been waiting
  C. had waitedD. would wait
  析:B。由语境逻辑可以推出到would wait所体现的动作为止疯狂的影迷两小时以来一直在耐心等待电影明星的到来,因此空档应用过去完成进行时。 

 Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School,where she ____ English for a year. (NMET2007湖南)
  A. studiesB. studied
  C. is studyingD. has been studying
  析:D。从一年前到现在,Cathy学英语的动作一直在进行着,因此空档应用现在完成进行时。 三巧用未来时间标志,妙解将来时试题
  一般/过去将来时往往表示某一动作在现在/过去某一时刻的将来发生,因此分析语境逻辑寻找以现在/过去某一时刻为标准的未来时间标志,可以妙解一般/过去将来时试题。以现在为标准的未来时间标志可由tomorrow,the day after tomorrow,in a month,next year等时间状语体现,也可由上下文语境体现;以过去某一时刻为标准的未来时间标志可由the next month,after a week等时间状语或上下文语境体现。
  ——How can I apply for an online course?(NMET2007北京)
  ——Just fill out this form and we ____ what we can do for you.
  A. seeB. are seeingC. have seenD. will see
  析:D。由语境逻辑可以推出空档表示“相对于现在来说将要看”,因此应用一般将来时。
  ——Tom,you didn’t come to the party last night?
  ——I ____,but I suddenly remembered I had homework to do.
  (NMET2007全国卷Ⅱ)
  A. had toB. didn’tC. was going toD. wouldn’t
  析:C。由but I suddenly remembered I had homework to do的语境逻辑可以推出空档表示“(相对于过去某一时刻来说)正准备来”,因此应用过去将来时。条件?时间状语从句应用一般现在/过去时代替一般/过去将来时;come,go,leave,arrive,start,fly,drive,open,close等动词常用一般现在时/过去时或现在/过去进行时代替一般/过去将来时。
  The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people ____ to eat more fruit and vegetables. (NMET2004上海)
  A. persuadeB. will persuadeC. be persuadedD. are persuaded
  析:D。 will be reduced表明空档为一般将来时,但因所在句为条件状语从句,因此应由一般现在时代替。
  Because the shop ____,all the T-shirts are sold at half price. (NMET2004浙江)
  A. has closed downB. closed down
  C. is closing downD. had closed down
  析:C。 由all the T-shirts are sold at half price可以推出空档表示“(相对于现在来说)即将关闭”,因此可以用现在进行时代替一般将来时。  四?巧用经常性动作标志,妙解一般时试题
  一般时往往表示经常性、习惯性动作,寻找现在/过去经常性动作标志可以妙解一般现在/过去时。现在/过去经常性动作标志常由always,usually,often,sometimes,seldom,never等表示时间的频度副词体现,也可以由上下文语境体现;过去经常性动作标志也可由last month,in 2000等过去性时间状语体现。一般过去时也可以表示过去的一次性动作或状态。
  We live day by day,but in the great things,the time of days and weeks ____ so small that a day is unimportant. (NMET2007湖南)
  A. isB. areC. has beenD. have been
  析:A。空档后面的is暗示空档应用一般现在时。
  ——Has your father returned from Africa yet?
  ——Yes,but he ____ here for only three days before his company sent him to Australia. (NMET2007辽宁)
  A. wasB. has beenC. will beD. would be
  析:A。由before his company sent him to Australia的语境逻辑可以推出空档表示“过去待在”,因此应用一般过去时。
  I know a little bit about Italy as my wife and I ____ there several years ago. (NMET2007全国卷I)
  A. are goingB. had beenC. wentD. have been
  析:C。several years ago为纯粹过去时间状语,因此空档应用一般过去时,表示过去一次性动作。   

                            巩固性练习:
   1. ——You should have come to my birthday party last night,

             but you didn’t.
        ——Oh,sorry. I ____ an important conference.
              A. was attending    B. am attending
              C. attendedD. have attended
  2. ——Tom,where does the great noise come from?
  ——Don’t you know two classes ____ an important football match  on the playground?
  A. are playing B. were playing C. playedD. had played
   3. If you don’t go there to visit the local village,I ____,either.
  A. don’tB. didn’tC. won’tD. haven’t
   4. I don’t know when they ____,but when they ____,I’ll tell them the news.
  A. will come,come B. come,will come
  C. will come,will come D. come,come
   5. ——What’s wrong with you? You look worn out.
  ——I ____ all the afternoon.
  A. am working B. have been working
  C. had been working D. had worked
   6. Why do you know her so well? It seems that you ____ her quite a
  few times.
  A. met B. have met C. had met D. meet
   7. To be honest,I ____ of Mary before she was introduced to me.
  A. don’t hear B. didn’t hear C. haven’t heard D. hadn’t heard
   8. ——Can I come to see you at three o’clock tomorrow afternoon?
  ——You’d better not,because I ____ my homework.
  A. will do B. do C. have done D. will be doing
   9. Her sister wrote to tell me that she ____ from college the next month.
  A. will graduate B. would graduate C. is graduating D. had graduated
  10. How long will it be before your father and mother ____ back from abroad?
  A. will come B. are coming C. come D. had come
  11. The girl told me she wanted to relax herself because she ____ her exercises all the morning.
  A. has done B. has been doing
  C. had been doing D. was doing
  12. ——I met your younger sister in the park yesterday.
  ——Oh,it’s strange. She ____ there much.
  A. doesn’t go B. didn’t go C. hasn’t gone D. hadn’t gone
  13. ——Mary,have you seen this wonderful movie?
  ——Yes,of course. I ____ it on the evening of last Wednesday.
  A. have seen B. had seen C. saw D. was seeing
  14. ——Tom,can you tell me something about this magazine?
  ——Why ____ it yet? I read it the day before yesterday.
  A. don’t you read B. didn’t you read
  C. haven’t you read D. hadn’t you read
  15. The bus ____ very soon,so please get ready to get on it.
  A. is arriving B. was arriving C. has arrived D. had arrived
  16. ——I finished my homework forty-five minutes ago.
  ——Did you? I ____ my homework yet.
  A. didn’t finish B. hadn’t finishedC. don’t finish D. haven’t finished

17. As we all know,agriculture and industry ____ very fast all over our country.
  A. are developing B. were developing
  C. had developed  D. had been developing
  18. His mother ____ in America for a few days,before long,she flew to England for business.
  A. had stayed B. stay C. have stayed D. stayed
  19. Hurry up,shall we? I’m sure our parents ____ for us anxiously.
  A. are waiting B. wait C. waited D. have waited
  20. ——I phoned you at ten o’clock last night,but you didn’t answer me.——Oh,I’m sorry; I ____.
  A. am sleeping B. was sleeping
  C. have slept D. have been sleeping
Key: 1.A 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.B 7.D 8.D 9.B 10.C 11.C 12.A 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.D 17.A 18.D 19.A 20.B

    

 

 

 



 


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