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分词 用法  

2011-10-04 15:59:23|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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分词
分词既有动词的特征,由有形容词和副词的特征。分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。现在分词有一般式和完成式,过去分词没有这种区别。及物动词的现在分词还有主动形式和被动形式的区别。分词常用的形式如表所示(以及物动词do 和不及物动词go为例):
        do        go
        主动        被动       
现在分词        doing        being done        going
过去分词        /        done        gone
完成式        having done        having been done        /

9.1 分词作定语
  不及物动词的现在分词作定语表达强调动作正在进行,过去分词强调完成;及物动词的现在分词作定语强调主动,过去分词强调被动。分词的完成式一般不作定语。分词作其他成分时,也是如此。分词作定语,单个的分词作定语一般前置;分词词组,个别分词如given, left等,修饰不定代词等的分词,作定语需后置。例如:
 We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
 He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人
 There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
 This is the question given.   这是所给的问题
 There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西
 分词作定语相当于定语从句,如Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists. = Most of the people who wereinvited to the party were famous scientists.
典型例题
  1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 
A. have written  B. to be written  C. being written  D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which was written
  2)What's the language ____ in Germany? 
A. speaking  B. spoken   C. be spoken  D. to speak
答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。spoken,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为:What's the language (which is) spoken in German?

9.2 分词作状语
   分词作状语,可以表示时间,原因,理由,条件,让步,连续等,相当于一个状语从句。例如:
Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call. 由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了个电话。
   As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
   Given more attention,the trees could have grown better. 多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。
   If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
典型例题
 1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed  B. Followed by  C. Being followed  D. Having been followed
 答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:                 With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
 2)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light. 
A. followed  B. following  C. to be followed  D. being followed
 答案B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动
。用现在分词。
 3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating  B. To be heated  C. Heated  D. Heat
 答案C. 本题要选分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,…
注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。例如:
Used for a long time, the book looks old. 由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。
   Using the book, I find it useful. 在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。
  
9.3 连词+分词(短语)
 有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。 连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个。例如:
  While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
等在那儿时,他看见两个靓妹走出大楼。(waiting 和saw 的主语相同)
9.4 分词作补语
  通常在感官动词和使役动词之后。例如:
   I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
   'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。
  
9.5 分词作表语
   表示主语的状态等。例如:
  She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。
  He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。
  
9.6 分词作插入语
  分词作插入语的结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。例如:
  generally speaking 一般说来
  talking of (speaking of) 说道
  strictly speaking 严格的说
  judging from 从…判断
  all things considered 从整体来看
  taking all things into consideration 全面看来
   例如:Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。
        Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 不是dogs 的动作)

9.7 分词的时态
1)一般式表示与主语动词同时发生。例如:
   Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。
   Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。
典型例题
  The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare  B. preparing  C. prepared  D. was preparing 
  答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B,C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主动关系,应用现在分词。
2)完成时表示先于主语动词发生。例如:
  While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
  分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用having done。
  Having finished his homework, he went out. 做完作业后,他出去了。
   =As he had finished his homework, he went out.
典型例题
  ___ a reply, he decided to write again. 
A. Not receiving  B. Receiving not  C. Not having received  D. Having not received  
   答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

9.8 分词的语态
1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。例如:
He is the man giving you the money.  (= who gave you…)他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car.  (= who was stopped by…)他就是那个被车拦住的人。
2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生,如gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned等。
例如: a well-read person.  一个读过许多书的人
         a much-traveled may 一个去过许多地方的人
         a burnt-out match   烧完了的火柴
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