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虚拟语气的用法及专项练习题  

2011-08-05 08:34:52|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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虚拟语气表示一种假设的情况,或一种主观的愿望,即动词所表示的动作或状态并非事实,或不可能实现。英语虚拟语气的形式有下列几种: 

一、与现在事实相反 

 

连接词

条件从句

结果从句

If

1.动词过去式(或were)

2.助动词(过去式)+动词原形

Should

Would   +动词原形

could

might

   

If had the time, John would make a trip to China to see the Great Wall.

If I were you, I would give up drinking immediately. 

二.与将来事实相反

 

连接词

条件从句

结果从句

If

1.     should+动词原形

2.     动词过去式

3、were to+动词原形

Should

Would     +动词原形

could

might

If you should lose, what would you do?

If I were to see her tomorrow, I would tell her thetruth.

If you went there next time, you would see what I mean.

三、与过去事实相反

 

连接词

条件从句

结果从句

If

had+过去分词

Should

 Would   + have+过去分词

could

might

If I’d known that it was going to rain, I would never have gone for a walk in the country.

四、虚拟语气的几种特殊用法

省掉if的条件从句结构:

Had you asked me, I would have told you.    (=If you had asked me,…)

2.有时虚拟条件不用条件从句而用不定式、分词、介词、名词、连接词或定语从句来表示,如:

A true friend would not do such a thing.

(=If he were a true friend, he...)

(=If there were no water,…)

(=If you hadn’t helped me,…)

3.     有时条件从句中的动作和结果从句中的动作发生的时间不一致,如:

If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be quite all right now.

If I were you, I would have gone home. 

五、虚拟语气的其他用法

1、Suggest, advise 等动词之后宾语从句须用虚拟语气,其句子结构如下:

 

suggest, advise, recommend, demand,

require, insist, urge, request, order,       +that…(should )+动词原形

devide, ask, move, propose等

   

注意:在此结构中that不可省略;should省不省均可。

He suggested that they (should ) stop smoking.

上述动词的名词形式出现时,that 引导的从句仍用虚拟语气。

He made a request that they (should ) stop smoking.

如果that 引导的从句所表达的内容是事实,也可用陈述语气。

He insists that he is right. 

2、It is (was )+necessary, a pity 等+that引导的从句须用虚拟语气,其句子结构如下:

 

          imperative, advisable,                       动词完成式

It is (was) + important,natural, necessary, +that…(should)  +

essential, strange,等                          动词原形      

It is important that you (should) follow the doctor’s orders.

It is right that you should have done your homework. 

3、wish的用法

 

动词过去式或were—与现在事实相反

主语+wish(that)+主语   动词过去完成式—与过去事实相反

助动词过去试+动词原形—与将来事实相反

     

I wish I were a pop singer.    (=I am sorry I am not a pop singer..)

I wish I had never stopped teaching.    (=I am sorry I stopped teaching.)

I wish they’d let us get some sleep.

注意:wish与hope接宾语从句的区别在于:hope表示一般可以实现的希望,宾语从句用陈述语气。wish表示很难或不大可能实现的希望,宾语从句用虚拟语气。试比较:

(1) We hope they will come,(We don’t know if they can come.)

(2) We wish they could come,(We know they are not coming.) 

4、as if, as though, would(had) rather(that)引导的从句须用虚拟语气,如:

   He acts as if nothing had happened.

I would rather you didn’t tell him. 

5、It’s (high) time that…+动词过去式或should+动词原形,如:

It’s time (that) you had a hair cut.

It’s high time (that) we took some action.

 

                           虚拟语气专项练习题

(1). If I   you, I would go by plane. Flying is much faster.

      A. be     B. was    C. were    D. am 

(2). I do not think those people are really English. If they were, they   speak

 wish French accents.

      A. don't    B. will not    C. mustn't   D. wouldn't

(3)    today, would we be able to get there by Tuesday?

      A. Were we leaving        B. If we leave

      C. Would we leave         D. Were we to leave 

(4). If Jone    tomorrow, what would you do?

      A. were not to come         B. will not come

    C. would not come           D. had not come 

(5). “She didn't ask me, so I didn't help her?”

“You mean to say    , you would've helped her ?”

A. if she asked you       B. if she were to ask you

C.had she asked you      C. were she to ask you 

(6). They took the injured straight to the hospital. Otherwise some of them   .

        A. might have died   B. might die   C. would die  D. could die 

(7). If they had known him,     to him?

    A. would they have talked       B. would they talk 

  C.had they talked              D. they would talk 

(8). If I lived in the city, I  traveal in croweded buses, but I  to see lots of  films.

       A. shall have to/shall be able     B. shall have to/am able

       C. would have to/were able      D. would have to/would be able

 

(9). I would have gone to the concert, if I   time.

       A. had had    B. have had   C. had    D. would have had 

(10).   I know it, I would have told you.

       A. Have    B. If    C. Had    D. Having 

(11).     your help, I would not have succeeded.

     A. Because    B. Because of     C. But    D. But for 

(12). “What did Mr Smith say about his career?”

“Only that if he    a millionaire, he would have fewer worries.”

      A. did not become          B. had not become

      C. does not become         D. has not become 

(13). “Why didn't you help him?”

“I would have     I didn't have the money.”

        A. still     B. but     C. otherwise     D. or 

(14). “Who should go to see Li Ying? He is ill today.”

   “I suggest Wang Hong    .”

A. goes     B. would go    C. go    D. went 

(15). The housemaster was strict. He requested that we    television on week 

nights.

A. not watch              B. must not to watch 

  C. not be watching          D. have not watch 

(16). I can't speak Japanese, but I do wish I    .

    A. can     B. could    C. had     D. speak

 

(17). “Are you enjoying your stay here?’

“Yes, very much. I wish I    have to leave so soon.”

A. won't     B. don't    C. mustn't    D. didn't 

(18). “What will you do during the summer holidays?”

“I don't know, but it's about time     on something.”

      A. I'm deciding   B. I'll decide   C. I decided   D. I'd decided 

(19). I'd rather you     anything about it for the time being.

      A. say     B. didn't say   C. don't say    D. not say 

(20). “Why do you have to be there at six?”

   “The teacher demands that everyone    in his seat at six.”

     A. would be    B. can be     C. be    D. will be 

(21). He makes a note of the assignment lest he    it.

     A. forgets    B. forget    C. will forget    D. will not forget 

(22). “how does the librarian act?”

“He acts as if he    a walking dictionary.”

A. were    B. be     C. is     D. has been 

(23). There is a law that drunken drivers     severely punished.

       A. were       B. are     C. be    D. will be 

(24). I wish you     interrupt when I'm talking on the phone.

      A. will not    B. would not   C. do not   D. did not 

(25). Henry talks to his dog as if it     him.

      A. understands   B. understood   C. understand   D. would understand 

(26). Jeff looked as if he     a ghost.

      A. saw    B. has seen     C. had seen    D. would see

(27). Give her my best regards,       .

      A. should you see her today       B. if you saw her today

      C. if you would see her today      D. should you have seen her today 

(28). There was a suggestion by the teachers that the meeting  postponed for a week.

      A. had been    B. would be    C. was     D. should be 

(29). It is highly desirable that every effort      to reduce pollution in Bei jing.

     A. was made    B. be made    C. will be made    D. would be made 

(30). The manager would rather that his wife     work in the same office as he does.

     A. does not     B. did not    C. would not    D. will not 

(31). The teacher insisted that we all      back by two o'clock.

     A. be      B. to be      C. would be      D. shall be 

(32). I didn't go to the football match, but I do wish I     there.

     A. went      B. was     C. were      D.had been 

(33). It is high time we     drug trafficking.(贩毒)

     A. did away with           B. do away with 

     C. did away               D. should do away with

 

                 虚拟语气专项练习题参考答案

(1)C   (2) D  (3) D  (4) A  (5) C  (6) A  (7) A  (8) D  (9) A  (10) C (11) D  (12) B  (13) B  (14) C  (15) A  (16) B  (17) D  (18) C  (19) B

 (20) C  (21) B  (22) A  (23) C  (24) B  (25) B  (26) C  (27) A  (28) D

 (29) B   (30) B  (31) A   (32) D   (33) A

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