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【引用】直接引语和间接引语详解(打印材料)  

2011-08-02 11:12:17|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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直接引述别人的话,叫“直接引语”。用自己的话转述别人的话,叫“间接引语”。间接引语在多数情况下构成宾语从句。直接引语一般前后要加引号,间接引语不用引号。例如:

John said, “I like reading adventure stories.”约翰说:“我喜欢看历险故事。”(直接引语)

John said that he liked reading adventure stories.约翰说她喜欢看历险故事。(间接引语)

那么直接引语为陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和祈使句,转换为间接引语时,句子的结构,人称、时态、时间状语和地点状语等都要有变化,如何变化呢?

1、人称的转变

1)直接引语中的第一人称,一般转换为第三人称,如:

He said,“I am very sorry.”

——>He said that he was very sorry.

2)直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对转述人说的,转换为第一人称,如:

“You should be more careful next time,” my father told me.

——>My father told me that I should be more careful the next time.

3)直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对第三人称说的,转换成第三人称。如:

She said to her son, “I'll check your homework tonight.”

——>She said to her son that she would check his homework that night.

4)人称的转换包括人称代词、物主代词和名词性物主代词等,如:

He asked me, “Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?”

——>He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon.

口诀记忆为 :一主、二宾、三不变

  直接引语和间接引语详解(打印材料) - 玉兔王子 - bilixiang的博客一主、 二宾、三不变--谈谈直接引语变间接引语人称变化规律

2.时态的转换

直接引语改为间接引语时,主句中的谓语动词如果是过去时,从句(即间接引语部分)的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化,变成过去时范畴的各种时态(实际也是宾语从句的时态要求),变化如下:

1. 

 

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

can

could

may

might

 

 

2.例如:“I am very glad to visit your school”, she said.

——>She said she was very glad to visit our school.

Tom said, “We are listening to the pop music.”

——>Tom said that they were listening to the pop music.

Mother asked, “Have you finished your homework before you watch TV?”

——>Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.

He asked the conductor, “Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?”

——>He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus.

“Why did she refuse to go there?” the teacher asked.

——>The teacher asked why she had refused to go there.

Mother asked me, “Had you finished your homework before you watched TV?”

——>Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.

Tom said, “We were having a football match this time yesterday.”

——>Tom said that they were having a football match that time the day before.

He said,“I haven't heard from my parents these days.”

——>He said that he hadn't heard from his parents those days.

3、直接引语变成间接引语时,从句时态无须改变的情况

1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时的时候,如:

He always says, “I am tired out.”

——>He always says that he is tired out.

2)当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候,如:

He will say, “I’ll try my best to help you.”

——>He will say that he will try his best to help me.

3)当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时,如:

He said, “I went to college in 1994.”

——>He told us that he went to college in 1994.

4)当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从句,表示过去的时间时,如:

He said,“When I was a child, I usually played football after school.”

——>He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school.

5)当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象时,如:

Our teacher said to us, “Light travels faster than sound.”

——>Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.

6)当引语是谚语、格言时,如:

He said,“Practice makes perfect.”

——>He said that practice makes perfect.

7)当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need时,如:

例如:

The doctor said, “You'd better drink plenty of water.”

——>The doctor said I'd better drink plenty of water.

He said, “She must be a teacher.”

——> He said that she must be a teacher.

He said, “She ought to have arrived her office by now.”

——>He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then.

The teacher said, “You needn't hand in your compositions today.”

——>The teacher said we needn't/didn't need to/didn't have to hand in our compositions.

She asked, “Must I take the medicine?”

——> She asked if she had to take the medicine.

〔注〕:此处用had to代替must更好

8)此外转述中的变化要因实际情况而定,不能机械照搬,如果当地转述,here不必改为there, 动词come不必改为go,如果当天转述yesterday, tomorrow, this afternoon等均不必改变。如:

Teacher: You may have the ball game this afternoon.

Student : What did the teacher say, Monitor?

Monitor: He said we might have the ball game this afternoon.

3、时间状语、地点状语及某些对比性的指示代词和动词变化

        

直接引语

间接引语

指示

代词

this    这

that那

these   这些

those那些

now现在

then那时

today今天

that day那天

this week (month,etc)

本星期(月等)

that week(month,etc)

那个星期(月等)

yesterday昨天

the day before前一天

the day before yesterday前天

two days before前两天

last week(year,etc)

上星期(去年)

the week (year,etc.)before

前一周(年等)

three days (a year,etc.) ago.

three days (a year,etc,)before

tomorrow

the next (following)day

the day after tomorrow

two days later(in two days time)

过两天

next week (year,etc)

下星期(明年等)

the next (following) week (year,etc)

下一周(第二年等)

地点状语

here这里

there那里

动词

come来

bring

go去

take

 

例如:He said, ”I want to go swimming now. ”

→ He said he wanted to go swimming then.

The teacher said ,“ You should come here at 7:00.”

→The teacher said I should go there at 7:00.

She said, “I won't come here any more.”

→She said that she wouldn’t go there any more..

He said, "This books is mine.“

→He said that book was his.

4、直接引语变成间接引语,句子结构的变化

1)直接引语为陈述句。用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直用接引语中的said, 也可用told来代替,注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,不可直接说told that, 如:

He said, “I have been to the Great Wall.”

——>He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.

He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday.”

——>He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.(不可说told that)

此外主句中的谓语还常有:

repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等,又如:

He said,“I'm late because of the heavy traffic.”

——> He explained to us that he was late because of the heavy traffic.

如果间接引语是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列从句,第一个连词可以省略,以后的连词一般不省略,以免混乱。

The doctor said, “You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon.”

——>The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.

2)直接引语为一般疑问句,间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中谓语动词said要改为asked(me/him/us等),语序是陈述句的语序,这一点非常重要。

He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”

——>He asked(me)whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.

He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?”

——>He asked whether I was interested in English.

3) 直接引语为选择疑问句,间接引语用whether…or…表达,而不用if…or…,也不用either…or…. 如:

He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”

——>He asked me whether I spoke English or French..

I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”

——>I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.

4)直接引语为特殊疑问句,改成间接引语时,原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用ask(sb.)来表达,语序改为陈述句语序。如:

He asked,“What's your name?”

——> He asked(me)what my name was.

He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?”

——>He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.

5)直接引语为祈使句时,改为间接引语,用带to的不定式表达,谓语动词常是ask, advise, tell, warn, order, request等。如ask sb. to do,(由肯定祈使句变成)ask sb. not to do(由否定祈使句转变),并且在不定式短语中的时间状语、地点状语、人称及时态都作相应的变化。如:

He said,“Be seated, please.”

——> He asked us to be seated.

“Do be careful with your handwriting.” He said.

——>He told me to be careful with my handwriting.

“Never come here again!” said the officer nearby.

——>The officer ordered the villagers never to go there again.

“Don't touch anything in the lab without permission,” the teacher said.

——>The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission.

6)有些含有“建议”“劝告”的祈使句,可用suggest, insist, offer等动词转述,如:

He said, “Let's have a rest.”

——> He suggested our having a rest.

He said, “Let me help you.”

——> He offered to help me.

7)当直接引语形式上是疑问句,有表示请求,建议意义时,可用ask sb. to do sth. /suggest doing/advise sb. to do sth. 等形式转述。如:

“Would you mind opening the door?” he asked.

——>He asked me to open the door.

“Why not going out for a walk?” he asked us.

——>He advised us to go out for a walk. 或He suggested we go out for a walk.

8)直接引语是感叹句时,变间接引语可用what或how引导,也可用that引导,如:

She said, “What a lovely day it is!”

——> She said what a lovely day it was. 或She said that it was a lovely day.

5. 一些注意事项

  (1)直接引语是客观事实、普遍真理等,变成间接引语时,时态不变。例如:

  They told their son,"The earth goes round the sun."

They told their son that the earth goes round the sun.

  (2)直接引语变间接引语时,

指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要作相应的变化。如:this/that→ these/those, now→then, today→that day, yesterday→the day before, last year→the year before, ago→before, here→there等。例如:

  He said, "I haven't seen her today."

He said that he hadn't seen her that day.

  注意:如果转述时就在原来的地方,就在说话的当天,就不必改变指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等。

  (3)间接引语一般要用陈述句的语序,即主、谓、宾的顺序。例如:

  He asked Lucy, "Where did you go?"

He asked Lucy where she went.

  Tom said, "What do you want, Ann?"

Tom asked Ann what she wanted.

 

直接引语变间接引语见下表

分类

连接词

例句

注意事项

补充说明

当直接引语为“陈述句”时

连接词:that

(口语中常常省略)

He says, “ I will go to the park tomorrow.”

--He says (that) he will go to the park tomorrow.

He said, “ I will go to the park tomorrow.”

--He said (that) he would go to the park tomorrow.

He told me, “ you can help her.”

--He said to me (that) I could help her..

1. 连接词:that

2. 人称:1主,2宾,3不变

3. 时态。

1. 黑体部分是连接词。斜体部分为间接引语部分。

2. 间接引语部分均为陈述语序。

3. 间接引语部分实际上是宾语从句,连接词之间的叫主句。

4. 当主句是一般现在时态,间接引语部分与直接引语的时态相同。

5. 当主句是一般过去时态,间接引语部分变为相应的过去时态。

当直接引语是“一般疑问句”时。

连接词:

if或者whether.

可译为:是否

He asked me, “Are you good at math?’

---He asked me if I was good at math.

He asked Amy, “ Do you love me?”

---He asked Amy whether she loved him.

He asks me, “Is she reading?”

---He asks me if she is reading.

1. 连接词:if , whether

2. 语序:改为“陈述语序”。

 3. 人称:1主,2宾,3不变

4. 时态。

当直接引语为“特殊疑问句”时。

连接词:

直接引语中的特殊疑问词。

 

He asked his wife, “How are you?”

---He asked his wife how she was.

He asked me , “ What color do you like?”

---He asked me what color I liked.

He asks me, “ where will she go 3 days later.”

---He asks me where she will go 3 days later.

1. 连接词:特殊疑问词

2. 语序:改为“陈述语序”。

3. 人称:1主,2宾,3不变

4. 时态。

当直接引语为“祈使句”时

没有连接词。用: ask(tell) sb. to do sth改写。或tell (ask) sb. not to do sth. 改写

He said to Amy, “Be careful!”

--He asked Amy to be careful.

He shouted, “ Lily, Close the door.”

--He told Lily to close the door.

He said to me, “Don’t be late.”

--He asked me not to be late.

1. 不用连接词

2. 不改变时态。

3. 无须考虑语序

4. 人称:1主,2宾,3不变

1. 斜体部分为间接引语部分。

2.间接引语部分是动词不定式,在句中作宾语补足语。

 

直接引语和间接引语专项练习

1. “You’ve already got well, haven’t you?” she asked.

→She asked ________.

  A. if I have already got well, hadn’t you

  B. whether I had already got well

  C. have I already got well

D. had I already got well.

2. He asked , “ Are you a Party member or a League member?”

  →He asked me _________.

  A. am I a Party member or a League member

  B. was I a Party member or a League member

  C. if I was a Party member or a League member

  D. whether was I a Party member or a League member.

3. He asked, “How are you getting along?” →He asked _______.

  A. how am I getting along

  B. how are you getting along

  C. how I was getting along

  D. how was I getting along

4. He asked me ________ with me.

  A. what the matter is B. what the mater was

  C. what’s the matter D. what was the matter

5. He said, “Don’t do that again.” He _____ me _______ that again.

  A. said to me; not to do B. said to me; don’t do

  C. told me; don’t do D. told me; not to do

6. Can you make sure ___________?

A. that he will come here today B. when he will come here today

C. will he come here today D. whether will he come here today

7. Do you happen to know ________?

A. where is her address B. in which place is her address

C. what her address is D. the place her address is

8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________?

A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library

C. how can I get to the library D. how I can get to the library

9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him.

A. how would I like B. if or not would I like

C. whether I would like D. which I would like

10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese.

A. when he began to learn B. when did he begin to learn

C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn

II. 将下列句子变为间接引语:

1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him.

2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children”

3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary.

4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.”

5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.”

6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.”

7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of

last term.”

8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st ,

1921.”

9. He said, “Are you a student?”

10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said.

11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked.

12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son.

13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?” the mother asked the naughty boy.

14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, Mr. Li?”

15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us.

16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her.

17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said.

18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher.

19. “What a lovely day it is!”

20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said.

III. 把下列句子变为直接引语:

1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it.

2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not.

3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the next day.

4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat.

5. The stranger asked me what my name was.

6. She said that she would finish her work the next day.

7. The teacher asked if we could do it.

8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn.

9. My teacher asked whether he was coming.

10. The scientist asked me what I was doing.

答案

I. 1~5 B C C D D 6~10 A C D C A

II.

1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next time.

2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on business the next month.

3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days.

4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.

5. She told him that it was time that he left there.

6. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.

7. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.

8. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 192

9. He asked whether I was a student.

10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read.

11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not.

12. The father asked his son where he was going.

13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done.

14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours before.

15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first.

16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day.

17. He offered to pack the parcel for me.

18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class.

19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day.

20. He wished me a Happy New Year.

III.

1. I said to him, “I have lost my money . I will find it.”

2. She asked , “ You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?”

3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do tomorrow?”

4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.”

5. The stranger asked, “ What’s your name?”

6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said.

7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it ?”

8. The commander ordered his men, “Don’t cross the river before dawn.”

9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?”

10. The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?”

 

 

直接引语和间接引语详解(打印材料) - 玉兔王子 - bilixiang的博客更多练习。。。  

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