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It构成的句型小结  

2011-06-01 20:02:31|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、        It作形式主语的句型
为使句子平衡,往往把it置于句首作形式主语,而把真正的主语(通常是不定式短语、动名词短语或主语从句)移至句末。It 作形式主语的句型有:
㈠ it 代指不定式短语的句型
1. It takes + (sb.) + sometime / some money + to do sth.
做某事花去某人多长时间
Just a minute, it won't take me long to change.
等一下,我很快就可以换好衣服。
It takes five minutes to walk there.
走到那里需要5分钟。
        It took me three days to prepare for the examination.
        我花了三天准备那次考试。
        It takes a lot of money to buy a house like that.
        买那样一幢房子需要很多钱。
2.     It takes + 名词 + (for sb.) to do sth. 某人做某事需要… …
It took great imagination as well as patience for Annie to teach me to speak.
对安妮来说,教我说话需要极大的信心和想象力。
It takes time for them to prepare for the great changes that take place in space.
他们需要很多时间准备应付太空中所发生的巨大变化。
3.     It is + 形容词 + (for / of sb.) to do sth.  某人做某事是… …的
常用于该句型的形容词比较多。for sb. 的句型 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better等。of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的) 等。
It was kind of you to help us.
谢谢你对我们的帮助。
It is getting harder every day for a lazy man to get a living.
懒汉谋生是越来越困难了。
What time would it be most convenient for me to call again?
什么时候我再给你打电话最合适?
It’s very good of you to have listened to me.
感谢你能听我讲。
It’s very thoughtful and kind of you to offer me this lovely holiday.
你能给我这么美好的假日,实在是想得太周到、友善了。
4.     It is + 名词 + to do sth.  做某事是… …的
常用于该句型的名词有:manners, duty, fun, good, a great honour等。
As a student, it is bad manners to come late to class.
作为学生,上课迟到是没有礼貌的。
It is our duty to pay taxes to our government.
向政府交税是我们的义务。
5.     It is + one’s turn + to do sth.  轮到某人做某事
It was my turn to clean the blackboard.
轮到我擦黑板了。
It is his turn to take the children to school.
今天该轮到他送孩子们上学了。
6.     It is + up to sb. + to do sth.  做某事是某人的责任或义务
It’s up to us to give them all the help we can.
我们理应竭尽所能地给予他们帮助。
It’s up to you to decide whether to go or not.
应该由你决定是否去。
㈡ it 代指动名词短语的句型
7.     It is + 名词 + doing sth.  做某事是… …
用于该句型的名词有:no good, no use, hard work, a nuisance, a waste of time, a great honour等。
It’s no use talking to him about it.
和他谈论此事是没用的。
It’s no use/good (in) crying over spilt/spilled milk.
事已至此,后悔也无用。(牛奶已泼,哭也没用。)
It is hard work keeping the grass green at this time of year.
这个季节还使草保持绿色真是不容易。
It was a nuisance having to wait for such a long time.
要等这样久真烦人。
It’s a waste of time your talking to him.
你和他谈话是浪费时间。
It has been a great honour your coming to visit me.
你的来访是我很大的荣幸。
8.     It is + 形容词 + doing sth.  做某事真… …
用于该句型的形容词有:pleasant, useless, senseless, worthwhile, dangerous等。
It was pleasant meeting you in London that day.
那天在伦敦见到你真高兴。
It’s dangerous playing with fire.
玩火是危险的。
Is it worthwhile making such an experiment?
做这样的实验值得吗?
㈢ it 代指名词性从句的句型
9.     It + be + 名词 + that从句
用于该句型中的名词有:a pity, a shame, a fact, an honour, a wonder, a good thing, good news, no wonder等。
惯用句型有:
It is common knowledge that…  ……是常识
It is a surprise that…         令人惊奇的是……
It is a fact that…           事实是……
It is no wonder that …           难怪 … …
It is a pity that she has made such a mistake.
真遗憾,她犯了这样一个错误。
It's a pity that you should have to leave.你非走不可真是件憾事。
It is a thousand pity/ thousand pities that he missed the chance.
他错过了这次机会真是太可惜了。
It is no wonder that he has passed the examination.
难怪他考试及格了。
It is a shame that you have to leave so soon.
你必须这么早离开,真遗憾。
It was a stupid thing that he didn’t listen to his teacher.
他不听老师的话,真蠢。
It is a great honour that he receive that prize.
他得到了那个奖真是无上的荣耀。
10. It + be + 形容词 + that从句 … … 是 … …
用于该句型中的形容词有:clear, obvious, true, certain, important, strange, natural, surprising, fortunate, good, wonderful, funny, possible, impossible, likely, unlikely, quite clear, unusual等。
惯用句型有:
It is necessary that…    有必要……
It is important that…    重要的是……
It is obvious that…     很明显……
It is important that we (should) learn English well.
我们学好英语是非常重要的。
It is necessary that the students (should) remember all the new words.
学生记住所有的新单词是必要的。
11. It + be + -ed 分词 + that从句 据… …是… …的
常见的过去分词有:said, reported, learned, announced, known, decided, expected, believed, considered, declared, felt, hoped, seen, supposed, thought, understood等。
惯用句型有:
It is said that…          据说
It is reported that…        据报道
It is believed that…       大家相信
It is hoped that…         大家希望
It is well known that…     众所周知
It is thought that…       大家认为
It is suggested that…      据建议
It has been decided that…   大家决定
It must be remembered that…务必记住的是
It is reported that another man-made satellite has been put into orbit.
据报道,又有一颗人造卫星被送入轨道。
It is said that he has gone to the USA for further study.
据说他已去美国深造了。
It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.
众所周知,光以直线运行。
It has been decided that we should design the machine ourselves.
已经决定我们自己来设计这部机器。
12. It + 及物动词 + 名词 + 从句
It makes no difference to me whether it’s foggy or clear.
对我来说,天气有雾或晴朗没什么关系。
It doesn’t make any difference to me whether he goes or not.
不管他是否去对我都没有什么影响。
It makes no matter whether you arrive first or last --- there’s enough food for everyone, whatever time they arrive.
大家早到晚到都无关紧要 --- 不管什么时候来,都有足够的东西吃。
13. It + 不及物动词 + that分句
常见的不及物动词有:seem, happen, look, appear, come about, turn out, occur等。
惯用句型有:
It appears that…      似乎……
It (so) happens (that)…  (那么)碰巧……
It occurred to me that…   我突然想起……
It seems that he is sick. (= He seems to be sick.)
看来他似乎有病。
It happened that he wasn’t there. (= He happened not to be there.)
碰巧他不在哪儿。
He would have been traveling on the train that crashed if it hadn’t so happened he’d been working late that night.
要不是那天晚上他正巧下班晚了,他就会乘坐那趟出事的列车了。
14. It doesn’t matter (to sb.) + 从句 (对)… …都无所谓
It doesn’t matter to me what he says.
对我来说,他说什么都无所谓。
It doesn’t seem to matter much whether he received the gift or not.
他是否接受这件礼物似乎都无所谓。
It doesn’t matter if we are late.
我们就是晚到一点也不要紧。
注意:It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。
其句型为:
    (1)suggested
It is  (2)important    that…+ (should) do
    (3) a pity
(1) suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted + (should) do
(2) important, necessary, natural, strange + (should) do
(3) a pity, a shame, no wonder + (should) do
It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.
 
二、        It 作形式宾语的句型
㈠ it 代指不定式短语的句型
15. 主语 + find(make, feel) it + 形容词 (+ for sb.) + to do sth.
I find it easy enough to get on with Tom.
我觉得与汤姆相处很容易。
I felt it necessary to speak about my shortcomings.
我感到有必要讲一下我的不足之处。
16. 主语 + find(make, feel) it + 名词 + to do sth.
He felt it his duty to mention the fact to Mr. Smith.
他觉得把事实告诉史密斯先生是他的职责。
People in the west make it a rule to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends.
西方人把为亲友买圣诞礼物作为一种惯例。
㈡ it 代指动名词短语的句型
17. 主语 + think + it + 名词 + doing sth.
We thought it no use doing that.
我们认为做那件事是无用的。
You must find it exciting working here.
你一定会发现在此工作是很令人兴奋的。
18. 主语 + think + it + 形容词 + doing sth.
I think it very unwise going on as we are without definite agreement.
我认为像我们这样没有确定协议而进行是不明智的。
   I don’t think it worthwhile taking such trouble.
   我想不值得这么费事了。
㈢ it 代指名词性从句的句型
19. 主语 + find(make, think) it + 名词 + that从句
I used to feel it a terrible thing that my mother should have to do the housework endlessly.
我曾老觉得母亲不得不无休止地做家务是一件可怕的事情。
   I consider it a great shame that I didn’t pass the examination.
   我认为我考试不及格是件非常羞耻的事。
20. 主语 + find(make, think) it + 形容词 + that从句
I think it best that you should stay here.
我认为你最好呆在这里。
You may think it strange that anyone would live there.
你也许感到奇怪,居然有人愿意住在那儿。
21. 主语 + take it for granted + that从句
I take it for granted that you will be coming to the meeting.
我当然认为你会来参加会议。
I took it for granted that you would stay with us.
我以为你当然会留在我们这里。
22. I hate(like, enjoy, love) + it + when从句    
我不喜欢/喜欢 … …
该句型中it用于hate, like, enjoy, love等动词后,充当形式宾语。
I hate it when people talk with their mouths full.
我很不喜欢人们吃着东西说话。
I like it in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright.
我喜欢秋天清爽明朗的日子。
       
三、        It 用于强调结构句型
23. It is/was + 被强调部分 + that…… 是… … 的
       此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。
It is from the sun that we get light and heat.
我们从太阳得到光和热。
It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
是我父亲昨天晚上在实验室做的试验。
It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening.
那个实验是我父亲昨天晚上在实验室做的。
It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab.
是昨天晚上我父亲在实验室做的那个实验。
It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening.
是在实验室里我父亲昨天晚上做的那个实验。
It is the ability to do the job that matters not where you come from or what you are.
干工作的能力不在乎你来自何方还是干什么的。
It will not be you who(that) will have to take the blame for this.
不是你必须承担这份责任。
It’s the servant who killed Mr. Smith.
是仆人杀害的史密斯先生。
It must be the servant who killed Mr. Smith.
一定是仆人杀害的史密斯先生。
It may have been at Christmas that John gave Mary a handbag.
或许是在圣诞节,约翰送手提包给玛丽的。
What was it that made you so happy?
使你这么高兴的到底是什么?
Whom was it that Mr. Smith saw in the college yesterday?
史密斯先生昨天在大学里见到的那个人到底是谁?
24. It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that ……
直到… …才 … …
It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.
直到她摘下墨镜来我才意识到她是一位著名影星。
It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.
直到我读了你的信,我才了解到事情的真实情况。
It is not until I have seen it with my own eyes that I will believe it.
只有我亲眼看到这件事,我才相信它。
25. It is/was … not … (被强调部分)+ that…是… …而不是… …
It is/was not …but …(被强调部分)+that…不是……而是……
It was last week not yesterday that she met your brother in New York.
她是在上周而不是在昨天,在纽约看见你弟弟的。
It was not last week but yesterday that she met your brother in New York.
她不是在上周而是在昨天,在纽约看见你弟弟的。
It was Mary’s bag not Jone’s that was lost at school yesterday evening.
昨晚是玛丽的提包,不是琼斯的提包,在学校丢了。
It was not Mary’s bag but Jone’s that was lost at school yesterday evening.
昨晚不是玛丽的提包,而是琼斯的提包,在学校丢了。
26. It is/was because … … + that … … 是因为… … 才… …
It was because he was ill that he had to see a doctor.
是因为病了,他才不得不去看医生的。
He told me that it was because he was ill that they decided to return.
他告诉我正是因为他患病了他们才决定回来的。
It was because the weather was too bad that we failed to get in touch with them.
正是因为天气太坏,我们才没有和他们联系上。
27. It is/was not because… … but because … … + that … …
   不是因为 … … 而是因为 … … 才 … …
It is not because she is beautiful but because she has a talent for music that I recommend her.
我不是因为她美,而是因为她有音乐天才,才推荐她的。
It is not because of your efficiency but because of long absence that you get little money.
不是因为你做事效率低,而是因为你缺勤时间久,得到的钱才少的。
28. It is/was + (被强调部分) + (that) … …+ that … …
正是 … … 的这个 … … 才 … … 
It is the fact that we have spent all our money that we must face.
正是我们已花光我们所有钱财的这一事实,才是我们必须面对的。
It was that he was chosen that made us very happy.
正是他被选中这件事,才使我们非常高兴的。
It is in the factory (that) we visited last week that his father works.
他父亲工作的地方,正是上周我们参观的那家工厂。
It is in the way (that) I like that she cooks chicken.
她正是以我喜欢的方式烹调鸡肉的。
 
四、        It 用于特殊结构句型
㈠常用固定句型
 
29. It is + time + for sb. to do sth 到……时间了; 该到……了
 
It is + time(about time, high time) + (that) sb. did sth. 
时间已迟了; 早该……了
It is time for you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。
It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。
It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。
It is time that the children went to bed. (= It is high time that the children should go to bed.)
该到孩子们上床睡觉的时间了。
It’s about time you stopped smoking.
是你该戒烟的时候了。
Jack’s suit was old and it was high time we bought a new one.
杰克的衣服已经穿旧,是该买一套新的时候了。
30. It is + the first / second time(表次数)+ that从句  
这是第一次 /第二次… …
该结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。
It is the first time that I have visited the city.
It was the third time that the boy had been late.
31. It is + 一段时间 + since从句
It has been + 一段时间 +   since从句
自从… … 以来已经 … …
该句型中 " It is … since…"可代替"It has been … since …",意思不变。
It is (= has been) five years since we last met.
自从我们上次见面以来已经有五年了。
It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.
我成为研究生已有两年了。
It seems a long time since we last met.
自从我们上次见面以来似乎过了很长时间。
It was years/ ages since I had seen her.
自从我上次见过她已经多年/很久了。
It is just a week since we arrived here.
我们到这里刚一星期。
--- My uncle comes in from Iraq tonight.
--- How long has it been since you last saw him?
--- 我叔叔今晚从伊拉克回来了。
--- 你们分别后有多长时间了?
注意:since从句中用延续性动词或状态动词的一般过去时,通常表示动作或状态的完成或结束。
It is five years since he lived here.
他不住在这儿已五年了。
It is a long time since he smoked.
他戒烟已有好长时间了。
It is three years since he joined the army.
他参军三年了。
It is three years since he was in the army.
他复员(离开军队)三年了。
32. It be + 一段时间+ before从句 好久… … 就 … …
该结构中be可以换用其他半系动词,也可以用将来时。
It was some time before he could speak.
过了好一会以后他才说出话来。
It was not long before I realized my mistake.
不久我就意识到了我的错误。
It seemed a long time before my turn came.
似乎过了好一会儿才轮到我。
It may be many years before we meet again.
我们可能要好多年以后才能见面。
It will be a long time before we finish this dictionary.
我们要用很长时间才能完成这本词典。
It will be five years before we meet again.
要等5年我们才能在见面。
㈡固定习语句型
   此类句型颇多,现就高中出现的列举一二:
33. It / That (all) depends. 要看情况而定
--- Can you come to the party tonight?
--- It all depends when I finish my paper.
--- 你今晚能来参加晚会吗?
--- 那要看我什么时候做完作业。
--- What will you do?   --- I don’t know. It depends.
--- 你愿意干点什么? --- 我不知道。要看情况。
34. It’s /That’s too bad + (that)从句.
太不幸了;太可惜了;真糟糕
It is too bad Jack doesn’t know German better.
真可惜杰克的德语没有学得更好一些。
It was too bad David had a bad cold when the circus came to our town.
真不凑巧,当马戏团来到我们镇上时戴维得了重感冒。
35. When / If it comes / came to the point, … …. 
到了紧要关头;到采取行动或作出决定的时候
   When it came to the point, he refused to help.
   到了紧要关头时,他却拒绝援助。
   I’m sure when it comes to the point, Mary won’t marry him after all.
   我敢肯定,到做决定时,玛丽是根本不会嫁给他的。
 
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