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初中英语语法知识难点大全  

2011-06-12 15:27:36|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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II. 例题(一) 形容词和副词
  I. 要点
  A. 形容词
  1、 形容词的用法
  形容词是用来修饰、描绘名词的,通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。如:
  He is honest and hardworking.
  I found the book interesting.
  某些形容词与定冠词连用表示一类人作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如:
  The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city.
  The English like to be with their families.
  多个形容词作定语修饰名词的顺序:
  冠词+序数词+基数词+性质状态(描述性)+形状大小+新旧老少+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。如: the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.
  2、 形容词比较等级的形式
  (1) 规则形式
  一般说来,单音节词及少数双音节词在后加-er; --est 来构成比较级和最高级;其他双音节词及多音节词在前加more, most.如:
  great-greater-greatest
  busy-busier-busiest
  important-more important-(the)most important
  (2) 不规则形式
  good (well)-better-best
  bad (ill)-worse-worst
  many (much)-more-most
  little-less-least
  (3) 形容词比较等级的用法
  ①表示两者的比较,用形容词的比较级+than. 如:
  He is cleverer than the other boys.
  This one is more beautiful than that one.
  ②表示两者以上的比较,用"the +形容词最高级(+名词)+of(in) …"如:
  He is the cleverest boy in his class.
  ③表示两者是同等程度,用"as +形容词原级+as". 如:
  He is as tall as I.
  I have as many books as you.
  ④ 越… 越…
  例如:The more I learn, the happier I am.
  ⑤ You can never be too careful. 越小心越好
  又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly.
  你怎么赞扬这个老师也不过分。
  ⑥ I have never spent a more worrying day.
  那一天是最令我担心的一天。
  I have never had a better dinner.
  这是我吃过的最好的一顿饭。
  ⑦ My English is no better than yours.
  我的英语和你的英语都不怎么样。
  B.副词
  1、 副词的种类
  (1) 时间副词 如:ago, before, already, just, now, early, late, finally, tomorrow等
  (2) 地点副词 如:here, there, near, around, in, out, up, down, back, away, outside等。
  (3) 方式副词 如:carefully, angrily, badly, calmly, loudly, quickly, politely, nervously等。
  (4) 程度副词 如:almost, nearly, much, greatly, a bit, a little, hardly, so, very等。
  2、 副词比较等级的用法
  其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。如:
  Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully.
  We must work harder.
  3、 某些副词在用法上的区别
  (1) already, yet, still
  already表示某事物已经发生,主要用于肯定句;yet表示期待某事发生,主要用于否定句和疑问句;still表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。如:
  We've already watched that film.
  I haven't finished my homework yet.
  He still works until late every night.
  (2) too, as well, also, either
  too, as well和 also用于肯定句和疑问句,too和as well多用于口语,一般放在句末,而also多用于书面语,一般放在句中与动词连用。either用于否定句和否定的疑问句,往往放在句末。如:He went there too.
  He didn't go there either.
  I like you as well.
  I also went there.
  (3) hard, hardly
  hardly意为"几乎"与hard在词义上完全不同。如:
  I work hard every day.
  I can hardly remember that.
  (4) late, lately
  lately意为"最近、近来",late意为"晚、迟"。如:
  He never comes late.
  Have you been to the museum lately?


  例1 Tom's father thinks he is already ____
  A high enough  B tall enough
  C enough high  C enough tall
  解析:该题正确答案是B。修饰人高用tall, 而建筑物的高用high,并且enough修饰形容词要放在形容词后面。因此该题选B。
  例2 ____ the worse I seem to be.
  A When I take more medicine
  B The more medicine I take
  C Taking more of the medicine
  D More medicine taken
  解析:该题正确答案为B。"the+形容词比较级+… , the +形容词比较级+…"意为越…,越…。该句意为:吃的药越多,我的病越是加重。
  例3"I haven't been to London yet".
  "I haven't been there ____".
  A too  B also  C either  D neither
  解析:该题正确答案为C。A和B都用于肯定句中。D-neither本身意为否定"两者都不",而C-either则用于否定句中,意为"也"。
  例4 Mr Smith was ____ moved at the news.
  A deep  B deeply  C very deep  D quite deeply
  解析:该题正确答案为B。A. deep用于副词时,修饰具体的深,如dig deep,而B-deeply则修饰表示感情色彩的词,如该题为deeply moved.另如deeply regret等。而D-quite和deeply均为副词,不能互相修饰。

(二) 介词

  I. 要点
  1、介词和种类
  (1) 简单介词,常用的有at, in, on, about, across, before, beside, for , to, without等。
  (2) 复合介词,如by means of, along with, because of, in front of, instead of等。
  2、介词和其他词类的习惯搭配关系
  (1) 和动词的搭配,如agree with, ask for, belong to, break away from, care about等。
  (2) 和形容词的搭配,如afraid of, angry with, different from, good at
  (3) 和名词的搭配,如answer to , key to, reason for, cause of, visit to等.
  3、介词短语可以有自己的修饰语,这种修饰语通常有right, just, badly, all, well, directly, completely等少数几个副词。如:
  He came right after dinner.
  He lives directly opposite the school.
  4、 某些介词的意义与用法举例
  (1) at, on, in(表时间)
  表示时间点用at,如at four o'clock, at midnight等;表示不确定的时间或短期假日也用at,如at that time, at Christmas等。
  指某天用on, 如on Monday, on the end of November, 指某天的朝夕用on,如on Friday morning, on the afternoon of September lst等。
  指长于或短于一天的时段用in,如in the afternoon, in February, in Summer, in 1999等。
  (2) between, among(表位置)
  between仅用于二者之间,但说三者或三者以上中的每两个之间的相互关系时,也用between, 如
  I'm sitting between Tom and Alice.
  The village lies between three hills.
  among用于三者或三者以上之间。如:
  He is the best among the students.
  (3) beside, besides
  beside意为"在…旁边",而besides意为"除…之外"。如:
  He sat beside me.
  What do you want besides this?
  (4)in the tree, on the tree
  in the tree 指动物或人在树上,而on the tree 指果实、树叶长在树上
  (5)on the way, in the way, by the way, in this way
  on the way 指在路上 in the way 指挡道
  by the way 指顺便问一句 in this way 用这样的方法
  (6)in the corner, at the corner
  in the corner 指在拐角内 at the corner 指在拐角外
  (7)in the morning, on the morning
  in the morning 是一般说法 on the morning 特指某一天的早晨
  (8)by bus, on the bus
  by bus 是一般说法 on the bus 特指乘某一辆车

  II. 例题
  例1 Do you know any other foreign language____ English?
  A except B but C beside D besides
  解析:A、B两项except等于but,意为"除了…",C-beside意为"在…旁边",不符合题意。而D-besides,   意为"除了…之外,还有"。所以该题正确答案为D。该题意为:除了英语外,你还知道别的语言吗?
  例2 He suddenly returned ____ a rainy night.
  A on B at C in D during
  解析:我们均知道,at night这一短语,但如果night前有修饰词,表具体的夜晚,则要用介词on来修饰,故该题正确答案为A。
  例3 I'm looking forward ____your letter.
  A to B in C at D on
  解析:该题正确答案为A。look forward to 为固定搭配,意为"期望、盼望"。 
(三) 连词

  I. 要点
  1、 连词的种类
  (1) 并列连词用来连接并列关系的词、短语或分句,如and, for, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor等。
  (2) 从属连词用来引导从句,如that, if, whether, when, after, as soon as等。
  除了从属连词(引导状语从句)外,还有其它可以用来引导从句的词类。它们是连接代词和连接副词(引导名词性从句),关系代词和关系副词(引导定语从句)。
  2、 常用连词举例
  (1)and 和,并且
  They drank and sang all night.
  (2) both…and 和, 既…也…
  Both my parents and I went there.
  (3) but 但是,而
  I'm sad, but he is happy.
  (4) either…or 或…或…, 要么…要么…
  Either you're wrong, or I am.
  (5) for因为
  I asked him to stay, for I had something to tell him.

  (6) however 然而,可是
  Af first, he didn't want to go there. Later, however, he decided to go.
  (7) neither…nor 既不…也不
  Neither my parents nor my aunt agrees with you.
  (8) not only…but(also) 不但…而且…
  He not only sings well, but also dances well.
  (9) or 或者,否则
  Hurry up, or you'll be late.
  Are you a worker or a doctor?
  (10) so 因此,所以
  It's getting late, so I must go.
  (11) although 虽然
  Although it was late, they went on working.
  (12) as soon as 一 …就
  I'll tell him as soon as I see him.
  (13) because 因为
  He didn't go to school, because he was ill.
  (14)unless 除非,如果不
  I won't go unless it is fine tomorrow.
  (15)until 直到…
  He didn't leave until eleven. (瞬间动词用于not… until 结构)
  He stayed there until eleven.
  (16)while 当…时候,而 (表示对比)
  While I stayed there, I met a friend of mine. (while后不可用瞬间动词)
  My pen is red while his is blue.
  (17)for 因为
  He was ill, for he didn't come. (结论是推断出来的)
  (18)since自从…
  I have lived here since my uncle left.
  (19)hardly… when 一… 就
  I had hardly got to the station when the train left.
  (20)as far as 就… 来说
  As far as I know, that country is very small.
  You may walk as far as the lake. (一直走到湖那里)

  II. 例题
  例1 John plays football ____, if not better than, David.
  A as well B as well as C so well D so well as
  解析:该题意为:John踢足球如果不比David好的话,那也踢得和David一样好。 和…一样好为as well as. 故该题正确答案为B。
  例2 She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.
  A when B where C which D while
  解析:该处意为"然而",只有while有此意思,故选D。
  例3 Would you like a cup of coffee ____ shall we get down to business right away?
  A. and B. then C. or D. otherwise
  解析:该处意为"或者",正确答案为C。

英语语法知识难点(二)

(四)动词时态、语态

I. 要点
 1、 一般现在时
 (1) 表示经常发生的动作或现在存在的状态,常与sometimes, always, often, every day等时间状语连用。如:Sometimes, we go swimming after school.
 (2) 表示客观真理、科学事实等。如:The earth goes round the sun.
 2、 现在进行时
 (1) 表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与now, at present等时间状语连用。如:
 What are you doing now?
 (2) 和always, continually等连用,表一种经常反复的动作,常含有某种情感。如:
 He is always doing good deeds.
 3、 现在完成时
 主要表示动作发生在过去,对现在仍有影响,或动作一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去,常与just, already, so far, once, never 等词连用。如:Have you ever been to Beijing?
 4、一般将来时
 表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与tomorrow, next year等连用。如:
 I'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning.
 We're going to see a film next Monday.
 5、一般过去时
 表示在过去某一时间或某一阶段内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与yesterday, last year, in 1998, a moment ago等词连用。如:It happened many years ago.
 6、过去进行时
 表示过去某一时刻或某一时期正在发生的动作。如:
 What were you doing this time yesterday?
 7、 过去完成时
 表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。如:
 The train had already left before we arrived.
 8、一般过去将来时
 表示说话人从过去的角度来看将来发生的动作。如:
 He said he would come, but he didn't.
 9、被动语态             被动语态的时态,以give为例。


时/式

一般

进行

完成

现在

am
is        given
are

am
is      being
are

has   
   been given
have  

过去

was        
   given
were

was  
  being given were  

had been given

将来

shall        
   be given
will 

 

shall      
   have been given
will

过去将来

should        
   be given
would

 

should       
   have been given
would


II.例题

 例1 I learned that her father ____ in 1950.
 A had died B died C dead D is dead
 解析:该题正确答案为B。从句中的谓语动词动作虽然发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前,但因从句中有明确的过去时间状语in 1950, 所以不用过去完成时态,而用一般过去时态。

 例2 The five-year-old girl ____ by her parents.
 A is looked B has looked for
 C is being looked for D has been looked

 解析:该题正确答案为C。在带有介词的动词短语用于被动语态句中,介词不能省,否则就变成了不及物动词短语,而不能用于被动语态的句子中。

(五)动词虚拟语气

I. 要点
 表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设等。一般常用于正式的书面语中。
 1、 虚拟语气的构成


情景

条件从句的谓语动词

主句的谓语动词

与现在事实相反

动词过去式 (be要用were)

should         
    +动词原形
would

与过去事实相反

had +过去分词

should         
    +have+过去分词
would

与将来事实相反

1、动词过去时
2、should +动词原形
3、were to +动词原形

should         
    +动词原形
would


 注:如果条件从句谓语动词包含有were或had, should, could有时可将if省去, 但要倒装。如:
 Had you (If you had) invited us, we would have come to your party.
 2、 虚拟语气在各种从句的应用
 (1) 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、惋惜、理应如此等,其谓语形式是"should(可省) +动词原形",常用于以下三种句型中。
 句型一:It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc) that…
 句型二:It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc) that…
 句型三:It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc) that…
 如: It is strange that he (should) have done that.
   It is a pity that he (should) be so careless.
   It is requested that we (should) be so careless.
 (2) 在宾语从句中用于suggest, propose, move, insist, desire, demand, request, order, command等动词后的宾语从句中,表间接的命令和建议。其谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
I suggest that we (should) go swimming.
 (3) 在表语从句中,表示间接的命令,要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句中的主语通常是suggestion, proposal, request, orders, idea等。从句谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
His suggestion is that we (should) leave at once.
 (4) 在同位语从句中,谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
We received order that the work be done at once.
 (5) 在It is time that…句型中,其谓语动词形式是"动词的过去式"或
 "should +动词原形",should不可省。如:It's time (that) we went ( should go) to school.

II. 例题
 例1 We had hoped that he ____ longer.
 A stays B have stayed C stayed D would stay
 解析:该题正确答案为D。had hoped表示"本希望",同样用法的动词还有think, expect等,后面的句子需用虚拟语气
 例2 "Mary wants to see you today".
 "I would rather she ____ tomorrow than today."
 A comes B came C should come D will come
 解析:该题正确答案为B。would rather后面的从句需用虚拟语气,用动词过去时表示。
 例3 Had she been older, she ____ it better.
 A had done  B might have done  C might do  D would do
 解析:Had she been older = If she had been old. 故该题正确答案为B。

(六)短语动词

I. 要点
 英语中有许多短语动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。英语短语动词的构成主要有以下六种:
 (1) 动词+介词
 常见的有look for, look after, send for, care about, ask for, laugh at, hear of (from), add to, lead to等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后。如:
 Don't laugh at others.
 I didn't care about it.
 (2) 动词+副词
 常见的有give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in, point out等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如:You'll hand in your homework tomorrow.
         Please don't forget to hand it in.
 (3) 动词+副词+介词
 常见的有look down upon, go on with, break away from, add up to, catch up with等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:
 All his money added up to no more than $100.
 After a short rest, he went on with his research work.
 (4) 动词+名词+介词
 常见的有take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:You should pay attention to your handwriting.
               We should make full use of our time.
 (5) 动词+形容词
 常见的有leave open, set free, cut open等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如:
 The prisoners were set free.
 He cut it open.
 (6) 动词+名词
 常见的有take place, make friends等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如:
 This story took place three years ago.
 I make friends with a lot of people.
 (7)辨析
 give away(让给,暴露) 和 give up(放弃,停止)
 put away(放起,收起) 和 put out (扑灭)
 turn up(出席,放大) 和 turn on (打开)
 keep out(阻止) 和 keep off (不让靠近)
 make up(编造,补上) 和 make out(辨认)
 take off(脱,起飞) 和 take out(拿出)

II. 例题
 例1 It is wise to have some money ____ for old age.
 A put away B kept up C given away D laid up
 解析:该题正确答案为A。意为"存";keep up意为"继续";give away意为"分发";lay up"贮藏"。例2 Here's my card. Let's keep in ____.
         A touch  B relation  C connection  D friendship
 解析:该题正确答案为A. keep in touch为短语动词,意为"保持联系"。
 例3 ____! There's a train coming.
 A Look out B Look around C Look forward D Look on
 解析:该题选A. look out 意为"小心"。

(七)动词不定式

I. 要点
 1、 不定式的形式。以动词write为例。


式|语态

主动语态

被动语态

一般式

to write

to be written

完成式

to have written

to have been written

进行式

to be writing

 

完成进行式

to have been writing

 


 2、 不定式的句法功能
 (1) 作主语
 To hear from you is nice.
 To be a good teacher is not easy.
 不定式作主语时,为了保持句子的平衡,往往以it作形式主语,而不定式置于谓语动词后。如:It's nice to hear from you.
   It's not easy to be a good teacher.
 (2) 作宾语
 通常用于want, hope, wish, like, need, hate, begin, start, remember, agree, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help等词后。如:I forgot to lock the door.
                      Please remember to write to me.
 (3) 作表语
 My job is to pick up letters.
 He seemed to have heard nothing.
 (4) 作定语
 不定式作定语时,须放在它所修饰的名词或代词后。如:
 I have two letters to write.
 I have a lot of work to do.
 (5) 作宾补
 通常用于want, wish, ask, order, tell, know, help, advise, allow, cause, force等词后。如:
 He ordered her to leave at once.
 He was forced to obey his order.
 (6) 作状语
 He got up early to catch the first bus.
 He worked hard to catch up with the other students.
 (7) 作独立成分
 To tell you the truth, I told a lie.
 (8) "疑问词+不定式"结构。 如:
 I don't know how to choose them.
 I cannot decide where to go.
 (9)不定式的否定式。如:
 I decided not to go.
 (10)不定式的完成式。如:
 He seemed to have cleaned the room before I came in.
 The boy is said to have been sent to the hospital last week.

 (11)too…to 结构。如:
 He was too excited to go to sleep.
 He was only too glad to go. (他太高兴了,乐意去)
 (12)主动表被动。如:
 The book is easy to read.
 I have a book to read.

II.例题
 例1 I haven't got a chair ____.
 A to sit B for to sit on C to sit on D for sitting
 解析:该题选C。不定式to sit on在句中作定语,修饰名词chair. 因为不定式和它所修饰的名词间是"动宾关系",所以不定式必须是及物动词,故此处on不能省略。
 例2 He was made ____.     A go  B gone  C going  D to go
 解析:该题选D。make sb. do sth. 如果是被动形式,不定式do前的to不能省略。

 例3 A new factory is ____ very soon.
 A to be built B built
 C to build D to building
 解析:该题选A。is to be built意为"将要被建"。

(八)动名词

I. 要点
 动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。
 1、 动名词的形式,以write为例。


式 | 语态

主动语态

被动语态

一般式

writing

being written

完成式

having written

having been written


 否定式 not +动名词
 2、 动名词的用法
 (1) 作主语
 Playing football is my favorite sport.
 Travelling with friends at weekend is fun.
 作主语的动名词结构复杂且长时,可用it作形式主语。如:
 It is fun travelling with friends at weekend.
 (2) 作宾语
 I enjoy playing PC game.
 He gave up writing five years ago.
 (3) 作表语
 What he hated most was doing nothing.
 Seeing is believing.
 动名词作表语时,句子的主语常是无生命名词或what引导的名词性从句。
 (4) 作定语
 There's a dining room in my school.
 All the people watching laughed.
 (5) 动名词的复合结构"物主代词(或名词的所有格)+动名词"。如:
 Tom's going home late made her mother angry.
 Would you mind my opening the window?
 不过,动名词的逻辑主语在遇到以下情况时,必须用名词的普通格(或人称代词的宾格)。
 ①无生命名词
 The girls were afraid of the door suddenly closing.
 Fire burns better by oxygen being at work.
 ②有生命名词,但表泛指。
 Have you ever heard of girls smoking?
 ③两个以上的有生命的名词并列。
 Do you still remember my parents and me coming to see you that day?

 3.后面常接动名词的动词和短语
 mind, enjoy, finish, consider, practise, magine,
 keep, suggest, advise, allow, permit,
 be worth doing, be used to doing, be busy doing,
 can't help doing, it is no good doing, it is no use doing,
 look forward to doing, stick to doing, pay attention to doing,
 devote to doing, lead to doing

II.例题
 例1 She says she doesn't feel like ____ out with you.
 A going B to go C for going D went
 解析:该题正确答案为A。 feel like = want, 此处like 为介词,后面要接名词或动名词作宾语
 例2 The garden needs ____.
 A water B watering C to water D watered
 解析:该题正确答案为B。 need = want = require. 如果物作主语,此三者后要接动名词或to be done这一结构作宾语。
 例3 Excuse me ____ you.
 A interrupting B to interrupt
 C interrupted D to have interrupted
 解析:该题正确答案为A。excuse 后接动名词作宾语,此句中的me为动名词的逻辑主语(常用于口语中)。

(九)分词

I. 要点
 分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容和副词的句法功能。它分为现在分词和过去分词两类。现在分词和过去分词的主要差别在于现在分词有一般式和完成式,过去分词则只有一般式。现在分词表动作正在进行,表主动。过去分词及物动词表动作已经完成,表被动。过去分词不及物动词表动作已经完成,表主动。
过去分词的句法功能:
 1、 作定语
 I like to read the novel written by Lu Xun.
 The woman sitting beside the broken window was a friend of mine.
 2、 作表语
 When I came into the room, I found the window was broken.
 I'm interested in this book.
 3、 作宾语补足语
 I'm going to have my bike repaired.
 When I walked home, I saw the thief caught by the police.
 4、作状语
 Seen from the top of the mountain, the city looks small.
 The teacher came into the classroom, followed by his students.

 现在分词的句法功能。
 1、作状语
 Seeing from the top of the mountain, I found the city was beautiful.
 Walking along the street, they suddenly saw him.
 2、作宾语
 I hate being spoken ill of.
 He considered visiting Japan during the winter vocation.
 3、作表语
 Seeing is believing.
 The book is interesting.
 4、作宾语补足语
 I noticed him crossing the street.
 Mother caught him smoking in the kitchen.
 5、作定语
 Do you know the man writing a letter?
 The worker running a machine is my brother.

 分词使用中的几个问题
 1、现在分词的完成式
 Having cleaned the room, I went out.
 2、现在分词的否定式
 Not having received any letter, he felt a little worried.
 3、现在分词与过去分词的不同
 现在分词表示主动、正在,过去分词表示被动、完成
 I found the man killed there.
 I found the man standing there.
 4、have结构
 We have the car repaired.
 We have repaired the car.
 We have Tom repair the car.
 We have Tom repairing the car the whole morning.
 5、分词作表语
 We were excited at the news.
 The football game is exciting.
 6、独立主格结构
 It being a fine day, we went out to visit the park.

II. 例题
 例1、Time_______, I'll go on a picnic with you.
 A. permit B. to permit C. permitted D. permitting
 解析:该题答案为D。 Time permitting…是独立主格结构,意为"如果时间允许的话…"
 例2、_______ if he had any bad habit, she replied that he was a heavy smoker.
 A. Ask B. To ask C. Asked D. Asking
 解析:该题答案为C。主语she是被问。

英语语法知识难点(三)
(十)情态动词与助动词

I. 要点
 助动词本身无意义,在句中帮助主要动词构成一定的时态,语态、语气,或是帮助构成否定句和疑问句,常用的助动词有be, do, have, shall(should), will(would).
 情态动词表一定的词义,本身并不表示动作或状态,而仅仅表达说话人的态度,它在句中须和主要动词一起构成谓语,主要的情态动词有can(could), may (might), must, have to, ought to, need, dare, shall, should, will, would.
 1、can 能,可以,表说话人同意,许可还可表客观条件许可,如:You can go now.
 提建议或请求时可用can I, can you表客气,如Can I buy you a drink?
 can和be able to表能力时的区别。
 can表一般具有的能力,be able to表在特定条件下的能力,如:Although the driver was badly hurt, he was able to explain what had happened.
 2、may
 (1)、可以,表说话人同意,许可或请求对方许可。You may go.
 (2)、(现在和将来)可能,也许,只用于肯定句和否定句中,如He may not be right.
 3、must, have to
 must表主观上的必须,have to表客观上的必须,如:It's getting late. I have to go. -Must I go now. -Yes, you must.
 (No, you needn't./ No, you don't have to.)
 4、need, dare这二词有实意动词和情态动词两种词性,如用作实意动词后接动词不定式to do,如用作情态动词后接动词原形。Need I go now? --Yes, you must./No, you needn't.)
 5、shall用于第一人称疑问句中表说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请求,如,Shall we begin our lesson?
 用于二、三人称陈述句,表说话人命令、警告、允诺、威胁等口吻,如: You shall fail if you don't work harder.
 6、should表应该,意为有责任,有义务。如:We should try our best to make our country more beautiful.
 7、will表有做某事的意志、意愿、安心、打算,如 "Will you lend me your book?" "Yes, I will.",
 8、should have done表应该做而未做
 must have done表对过去事实的肯定推测
 could have done表本可以做某事
 9、判断句:肯定句用must, 否定句用can't, 不太肯定用may, might
 He must be in the office now.
 He must have gone to bed, for the light is out.
 He can't be in the office. He is at home.
 He couldn't have cleaned the classroom, because he didn't come here today.
 He might be in the office, I am not sure.
 He might have cleaned the room, I suppose.

II. 例题
 例1,They _______ to walk in the street at might.
 A. didn't dare  B. not dared  C. not dare  D. dared not
 解析,该题答案为A, 此空需选一动词作谓语,因为后面是to walk, didn't dare是行为动词dare过去时态的否定形式。
 例2,When he was very old, Mr. Smith _______  sit for hours without saying a word.
 A. would  B. should  C. must  D. used
 解析,该题答案为A, would此处表过去的倾向性,习惯性动作,意为"总是"如: When we were children, we would go swimming every summer.

(十一)句子种类

I. 要点
 句子按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句;按结构又分为简单句、并列句和复合句。
 1、陈述句的否定
 (1) 在含有宾语从句的主从复合句中,当主句的谓语动词是think, expect, believe, suppose, guess, fancy, imagine等,且主句主语是第一人称时,宾语从句谓语的否定习惯上要移到主句谓语上,如: I don't think he is right.
 (2) 含有否定意义的副词never, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely, barely的句子应视为否定句,如: I have never been there before.
 2、反意疑问句
 (1) need和dare 既可作情态动词,又可作实意动词,在反问部分须加以区别,如We needn't leave, need we? We don't need to leave, do we?
 (2) 陈述部分出现否定意义的副词或代词如never, seldom, few, hardly, little等时,反问部分须用肯定形式如:He seldom comes, does he?
 (3) 陈述部分用不定代词作主语时,反问部分的主语用it ,如:Nothing can stop me, can it?
 陈述部分用everybody, everyone, somebody, someone,等作主语时,反问部分常用it,有时也用they,如:Everybody knows that, don't they?
 (4) 陈述部分包括used to 时,反问部分可有两种形式,如: You used to get up early, usedn't (didn't) you?
 (5) 陈述部分是"there + be"结构时,反问部分用there,如:There's something wrong with you, isn't there?
 (6) 陈述部分是含有宾语从句的主从复合句时,反问部分的主语和谓语应和主句保持一致,如: He never told others what he thought, did he?
 但,如果是I think , I believe等 +宾语从句时,反问部分须和从句的动词保持一致,如,I don't think he is right, is he? I don't believe he does that, does he?
 3、感叹句
 用what或how,
 What a beautiful park it is.
 How beautiful a park it is.
 How beautiful the park is.
 How we worked!
 4、祈使句
 Take care!
 Don't stand there.
 Please open the door for the old lady.

II.例题
 例1,Don't forget to post the letter, _______ ?
 A. will you  B. do you  C. won't you  D. shall you
 解析:该题答案为A, 在否定句、祈使句后只用"will you"?,但肯定的祈使句后可用如,Wait for me, will (won't, can, can't, could) you?

 例2,Let's go out for a walk, _______ ?
 A. will you  B. won't you  C. shall we  D. do we
 解析:该题答案为C,let's…后加上shall we来表语气婉转、客气,而在let us后加上will you。
 例3,He hardly writes to you, _______ ?
 A. doesn't he  B. does he  C. do they  D. has he
 解析:该题答案为B,hardly否定副词,反问部分要用肯定形式。

(十二)各种从句

I.要点
 根据从句在句中的句法功能,从句可分为名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句。
 1、 名词性从句
 (1) 主语从句
 What he wants is a piece of paper.
 It is believed that he can solve the problem.
 注:主语从句的谓语动词用单数。
 (2)宾语从句
 I don't know how to solve the problem.
 Do you know where he lives?
 (3)表语从句
 The problem is who can help me.
 This is why I came here.
 (4)同位语从句
 I have no idea where he went.
 I heard the news that he would come.
 同位语从句用that引导,常跟在fact, idea, news, promise, thought, message, hope, belief, doubt等词后,that在从句中不作任何成分。
 2、定语从句
 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词,或修饰整个主句的从句叫做定语从句,引导定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, that, as,和关系副词when, where, why。
 (1)that指物时一般可与which互换,但在下列情况下,要用that而不用which。
 a. 先行词有all, everything等不定代词时,如,
 Everything (that) he did is wrong.
 b. 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时,如,
 I'll read all the books (that) you lend me.
 c. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,
 This is the first letter (that) the boy has written.
 d. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时,如
 He is the very man (that) I'm looking for.
 e. 只用which的情况
 在介词后或在非限定性定语从句中
 This is the book about which we have talked a lot.
 The book, which he gave me yesterday, is very interesting.
 f. where和when作关系副词
 This is the room where I worked.
 This is the room which I stayed in.
 I remembered the day when we lived there.
 I remembered the day that I spent there.
 g. as和which
 as 可以放于句首,而which 不可以
 As you know, he is good at English.
 three of them 和three of which
 I have a lot of books, three of which are in Russian.
 I have a lot of books and three of them are in Russian.

 3、状语从句
 在复合句中起状语作用的从句叫做状语从句。状语从句可分为时间状语、地点状语、原因状语、目的状语、结果状语、条件状语、行为方式状语、比较状语、让步状语等多种。

II. 例题
 例1、 _______  I accept the gift or refuse it is none of your business.
 A. If  B. Whether  C. Even if  D. No matter when
 解析:该题答案为B。whether可以和or连用,if不可以,此外if一般仅用于宾语从句。
 例2、The way _______  these comrades look at problems is wrong.
 A. where  B. in that  C.X  D. with which
 解析:该题答案为C,先行词是way,定语从句中用that或 in which来引导或不填。
 例3, ____a long time since I saw you last time.
 A.It was  B. It is  C. It had been  D. It can be
 解析:该题答案为B,It is +时间数+ since引导的从句是一个句型,意为"从…时候以来过了多久了。"

(十三)主谓一致

I. 要点
 谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致,主谓一致包括语法一致、意义上一致和就近一致。
 1、语法上一致
 (1)、以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词要用单数,主语为复数时,谓语用复数,如,
 To work hard is necessary for a student.
 (2)、用and或both……and连接的并列主语,谓语动词用复数,如,
 Both he and I are right.
 但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,如, His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.
 (3)、主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有as well as, but ,except, besides, with ,along with, together with, like等,谓语动词仍用单数,如,
 The teacher as well as his students is excited.
 (4)、某些不定代词,如做主语,谓语动词要用单数,如:Everyone has a book.
 (5)、一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数,如,A lot of people are dancing outside.
 2、意义上一致
 (1)、表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数,如,
 Twenty years is not a long time.
 (2)、表示总称意义的名词public, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词用复数,如,
 People are talking about the accident.
 (3)、有些集合名词,如family, team等作主语,如作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数,如指其中每个成员,则用复数,如,
 My family is a big one.
 My family are watching TV.
 3、邻近一致
 用连词or, either……or, neither……nor, whether……or, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致,如,
 Either you or I am mad.

II.例题
 例1、 The chemical works _______  where my father has worked for thirty years in 1949.
 A. was built B. were built C. is built D. are built
 解析:该题答案为A。works形式上是复数,意思上是单数,因此谓语动词用单数,类似的还有news, maths, politics, physics.
 例2、They each _______  a copy of the new physics.
 A. have B. has C. having D. gets
 解析:该题答案为A。They each不等于each of …, each of 这个词组作主语谓语用单数如each of the students hands in their homework,而they each作主语,谓语要随each前面的词来变化。

英语语法知识难点(四)

(十四)倒装
I.要点
 按"主语+谓语"这种顺序排列的句子是陈述语序,如果变为"谓语(或谓语的一部分)+主语",就是倒装语序。
 1、全部倒装
 (1)there be 句型
 There is going to be a meeting.
 There is a book on the table.
 (2)here, there, now, then, in, out等副词置于句首时,主谓倒装,但如果主语是人称代词时,主语和谓语语序不倒装,如,Here comes the bus.
                         Here he comes.
 (3)直接引语的部分或全部位于句首时,有时也用倒装,如,
 "What he said meant nothing", said the teacher.
 (4)为保持句子平衡,强调表语或状语,使上下文紧密衔接时须完全倒装,如,In front of the house sat a small boy.

2、部分倒装
 (1)so, neither, nor置于句首说明与前者情况一致时,如,
 I like swimming, so does my brother.
 (2)only +状语放在句首,如,Only through this method can we win.
                             Only in this way can we do the work well.
 (3)含有否定意义的词置于句首,如,Hardly, scarcely, not, seldom, no sooner, never, little, at no time, in no way, no more等,如,Never had I heard that.
                             Little did I know about this.
 (4)以often, so +形容词或副词开头的句子,如,
 So heavy is the box that he cannot carry it.
 (5)用于省略if的虚拟条件句中,将had, were, should提前,如,
 Were I you, I wouldn't do that.
 Had he come, we would have won.
 (6)用于某些表示祝愿的句中,如,
 May you be happy for ever.

II.例题
 例1、Not only ____ this machine but ____ it.
 A. can he run……can he repair    B. can he run……he can repair
 C. he can run……he can repair   D. he can run……can he repair
 解析:该题答案为B,在not only……but (also)句型中,只有but前面的部分倒装,but后面仍是正常语序。
 例2、____, it is quite easy to drill a hole in it with laser(激光).
 A. Hard although the diamond   B. Hard as the diamond is
 C. As the diamond is hard          D. Has hard is the diamond
 解析:该题答案为B,在让步状语从句中,从属连词as可以表示though,但要用倒装语序。
 例3、Only in this way ____ to improve the situation there.
 A. can you hope  B. you can hope  C. hope can  D. you hope
 解析:该题答案为A, only和它所修饰的状语一起置于句首时,须用倒装。

(十五)it 与there be的用法

I.要点
 1、it的用法
 (1)用作人称代词,代替前文提到的无生命的事物,动植物、婴儿及指示代词this, that,如,
 I have a new pen. It is beautiful.
 The Browns have a new baby. It's cute.
 (2)用来表示时间、天气、距离等,如,It's twelve o'clock now.
                                      It's fine today.
 (3)用作引导词,代替由不定式,ing形式或从句表示的真正的主语或宾语,如,
 It's no good telling him that.
 It's necessary for you to do so.
 (4)用在强调结构中,构成强调句式:It is/was +被强调部分+that/who/whom +句子其余部分,可强调除谓语以外的句子其他成分,如,
 It was this morning that I saw him in the street.
 It was I who saw him in the street this morning.
 It was in the street that I saw him this morning.
 It was him whom I saw in the street this morning.
2、there be句型
 英语表示某时某处或某物时,常用there be句型,这是一种倒装结构,如,
 There are a lot of students playing on the ground.
 There is going to be a test this afternoon.
 当主语有两个或两个以上时,动词be常和最近的那个主语取得一致,如,
 There is a pen and three pencils in the pencil-box.
 There isn't a desk, a bench and three chairs in the room.
 There are lots of people like it, aren't there?
 there be句型,谓语动词除be之外,还可用其他表示存在,位置移动等意义的不及物动词或词组,如exist, stand, lie, enter, come, happen to be, appear to be等,如,
 There stands a house at the foot of the hill.
 there be句型表示"存在"而have表"有"、"拥有",所以there be中 be不能换成have,但当have表示事物的特征时,可用"主语+have"结构替换there be 句型,如:
 There are five doors in the house.
 The house has five doors.

    there be 的其它句型:
 1、There must be a meeting in the office.
 2、There have been great changes since 1979.
 3、There being no bus, we had to walk home.

I. 例题
 例1 ____ that he went to sleep.
 A It was until midnight           B That was until midnight
 C It was not until midnight   D That was not until midnight
 解析:该题答案为C。强调until结构时,要将否定词not移到until前。又如:He didn't leave until twelve 改为It was not until twelve that he left.

例2 There are a lot of students ____ in the class room.
 A talk   B talking   C talked   D to talk
 解析:该题正确答案为B。 There be句型为倒装句,可换为A lot of students are talking in the class room. 又如:There is a lot of noise heard out in the street.

(十六)省略

I.要点
 有时为了避免重复,使语言简练紧凑,在不损害结构或引起误解的原则下,往往省去一个或多个句子成分或词语。
 1、 固定习惯用词。如:
 No smoking! Thanks s lot!等。
 2. 简单句中的省略
 (1) 口语中,一、二、三人称的主语,有时还包括谓语都可以省略。如:(It is)Nice to see you!
 (This is) Li Ming speaking.
 (2) 所有格后的名词如为住宅、商店、工矿、教堂等可以省略。如:
 I'm going to visit Tom's (house).
 I met him at the tailor's (shop).
 (3) 两个或两个以上的动词不定式并列在一起时,第一个不定式带to,后面的不定式可省to.如: His job is to clean and mend the machine.

 (4) 主(宾)语补足语中的to be常省略。He was considered (to be) the best student in the class.
 (5) There be结构中 there be可同时省略,或只省略there.如:(Is there) Anything wrong?
 (6) 表示年龄的years old, 表示钟点的o'clock, minute等常省略。如:What time is it now? It's ten (o'clock).
 3从句中的省略
 (1) 宾语从句,以which, when, where, how和why引起的宾语从句谓语与主句谓语如相同,可省略从句中全部谓语,甚至主语也可省略,仅保留wh-一词。如:
 He will come, but we don't know when (he will come).
 He didn't come, I wondered why (he didn't come).
 (2) 定语从句中可省略作宾语的关系代词,如:
 The man (whom) I saw in the street the other day is my teacher.
 (3) 状语从句,在时间、地点、让步、方式、条件状语从句中,从句主语与主句主语一致,或从句主语是it,则be动词及其主语常可省略。如:
 I'll tell him that when (it is) possible.
 I won't go there unless (I'm) invited.

II.例题
 例1 A beam of light will not bend(弯曲)round corners unless____ to do so with the help of a reflecting device(反射装置)。
 A made B being made C having made D to be made
 解析:该题正确答案为A。 unless后省略了it is. make sb (sth) do sth变成被动语态则为sth/ sb be made to do.
 例2 While ____my homework, I heard a cry for help.
 A do B did C doing D having done
 解析:该题答案为C。该空处省略了I'm,相当于while I'm doing my home work.如:While playing guitar, he is singing.

英语语法习题检测
 1. He was a good swimmer so he ____ swim to the river bank when the boat sank.
 A. can  B. might  C. could be able to  D. was able to
 2. At the Christmas party Santa Claus (圣诞老人) ____ the presents under the tree.
 A. handed back    B. handed out
 C. handed in     D. handed to
 3. Tears ____ the little match girl's eyes as she thought of her kind grandfather.
 A. ran down  B. fell down  C. came to  D. rolled into
 4. A child can't learn ____ without ____.
 A. to spell, helping   B. spelling, helping
 C. spell, being helped   D. spelling, being helped
 5. Only one man had ever been elected President four times, ____ Franklin D.
 Roosevelt.
 A. for example      B. such as
 C. the one of whom    D. that is to say
 6. ____, the medical team is made up of twelve doctors.
 A. Altogether  B. Entirely  C. Completely  D. Wholly
 7. ---- ____.
 ---- Have a good time.
 A. I've to see the doctor now
 B. It's time for dinner
 C. I went to the concert last night
 D. I'm going to a party now
 8. The man lives in a ____ place. That is, he lives ____ from here.
 A. far away, far away  B. faraway, faraway
 C. far away, faraway   D. faraway, far away
 9. The patient's progress was encouraging as he could ____ get out of bed without help.
 A. nearly  B. only  C. hardly  D. badly
 10. We have to set off right away, ____ we ?
 A. do  B. don't  C. have  D. haven't
 11. The street lights ____ on when night falls.
 A. will have turned   B. will have been turning
 C. will be turned    D. will be turning
 12. " Well, in the translation, the word ____ a different meaning," said Miss Dianna.
 A. takes on  B. takes up  C. looks like  D. has a look at
 13. When he was through ____ he got up and left.
 A. to talk  B. to be talked  C. talking  D. being talked
 14. The town has ____ bridge.
 A. a fine old stone's  B. an old fine stone's
 C. a fine old stone    D. an old fine stones
 15. I didn't buy the apples; he gave them to me ____ nothing.
 A. with  B. for  C. at D. by
 16. ____ speak to me like that again.
 A. Never  B. Not  C. Not to D. Can't
 17. Egypt is ____ the oldest countries in the world.
 A. one B. between  C. among  D. in the middle of
 18. They fought ____ the end and won ____ the end.
 A. in, to B. to, in C. in, in  D. to, to
 19. I ____ three hours on the text and it will ____ me another hour for the grammar.
 A. have spent, take  B. spend, need have
 C. take, spend     D. need, take
 20. The play put on by the students was quite different ____ you imagined.
 A. from what B. to that  C. from which D. to which
 21. Here ____ the worker and writer.
 A. comes to  B. comes  C. come  D. are coming
 22. Would you like to have ____ more bread?
 A. some  B. any  C. a few  D. little
 23. There will be few, if ____.
 A. some  B. any  C. much  D. many
 24. I have ____ things to do. I can't play ____.
 A. many, no more   B. a lot of, any more
 C. much more, more  D. much of, any more
 25. I walked 50 miles today. I never guessed that I could walk ____ far.
 A. that  B. this  C. such  D. as
 26. I am sorry I took your umbrella ____ mistake.
 A. with  B. through  C. for  D. by
 27. You can go where you like ____ you get back before dark.
 A. as well as  B. as long as
 C. as soon as  D. so as to
 28. ____ we know, this is the best of its kind.
 A. Because  B. When  C. As far as  D. That
 29. There isn't any water ____ air on the moon.
 A. and  B. or  C. but  D. both
 30. It was not long ____ we climbed up the mountain.
 A. after  B. before  C. since  D. until
 31. The girl grew ____ age and wisdom.
 A. for  B. in  C. with  D. by
 32. The climate (气候) in Beijing does not agree ____ me.
 A. on  B. to  C. with  D. in
 33. There's a police car in front of the department store. What do you suppose ____.
 A. is happened   B. has happened
 C. would happen   D. did happen
 34. ____ better attention, the cabbages (洋白菜) could have grown better with
 the sun ____ them light.
 A. Given, gave    B. Given, giving
 C. Giving, given   D. Giving, giving
 35. What is ____ next?
 A. to do  B. to be done  C. doing  D. done
 36. "A Dream of the Red Chamber" (红楼梦) is said ____ into dozens of languages in the last decade (十年).
 A. to have been translated   B. to be translated
 C. to translate         D. to have translated
 37. Some scientists say that the need for fresh water ____ by the year 2000.
 A. will have doubled  B. will be doubling
 C. be doubled       D. has doubled
 38. It ____ I had no money with me at the moment.
 A. is so happened that  B. was so happened that
 C. so happened which    D. so happened that
 39. What does the weighing machine ____?
 A. express  B. explain  C. read  D. write
 40. Over a hundred boys came to ____ out for the football team.
 A. go  B. run  C. try  D. make
 41. There are ____ boys than girls in our class.
 A. much more  B. many more  C. many  D. a lot many
 42. His health is ____.
 A. as poor, if not poorer than, his sister
 B. as poor as his sister's if not poor
 C. as poor as, if not poorer than, his sister's
 D. as poor, if not poorer than his sister's
 43. The trees can ____ part of the heat from the sun.
 A. keep up  B. keep on  C. keep out  D. keep up with
 44. ____ hearing the news, we jumped ____ joy.
 A. On, with  B. In, to  C. At, in  D. For, with
 45. The hot weather will ____ another month, I think.
 A. go on with  B. go on for  C. get on with D. go on to
 46. When I was at school, I ____ to the library every afternoon.
 A. has gone  B. went  C. was going  D. had been going
 47. " Do you go to school?" " ____."
 A. No, I go home  B. Yes, I am
 C. No, I work   D. No, I cycle
 48. " Shall I keep the book or pass it on to Jack?"
 " ____, please."
 A. Yes, you shall     B. No, you mustn't
 C. Yes, please keep it   D. Pass it on to Jack
 49. These photographs will show you ____.
 A. what does our village look like
 B. what our village looks like
 C. how does our village look like
 D. how our village looks like
 50. Please explain ____.
 A. me the sentence   B. the sentence to me
 C. me to the sentence D. the sentence for me
答案:
 1-5 DBCDD 6-10 ADDAB 11-15 CACCB 16-20 ACBAA 21-25 BABBA 26-30 DBCBB
 31-35 CCBBB 36-40 AADCC 41-45 BCCAB 46-50 BCDBB

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