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高中英语倒装句考点归纳与试题解析  

2011-06-12 15:14:55|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高考英语倒装句考点归纳与试题解析

倒装(Inversion)是一种语法手段,用以表示一定句子结构的需要和强调某一句子成分的需要。英语的最基本结构是主、谓结构,倒装就是将这种比较固定的结构加以颠倒。

倒装有两种:将主语和谓语完全颠倒过来,叫做完全倒装(Complete Inversion)。如:In came a man with a white beard. 只将助动词(包括情态动词)移至主语之前,叫做部分倒装(Partial Inversion)。如:Only once was John late to class.

英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞的需要而进行的倒装。前一种情况,倒装是必须的,否则就会出现语法错误;后一种情况,倒装是选择性的,倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。下面本文就拟从其修辞功能谈谈倒装句的用法。

倒装句最突出、最常见的修辞效果就是强调,其表现形式如下:

1. only +状语或状语从句置于句首, 主句用部分倒装。

例1:Only in this way can you solve this problem. 只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。

例2:Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake.

只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。
 例1. Only then____ how much damage had been caused? (06年陕西卷)
 A. she realized            B. she had realized
 C. had she realized        D. did she realize
   解析:only位于句首修饰状语then,全句要进行部分倒装, 由then又知道此时时态应用一般过去时态。故正确答案为D。

2. not, little, hardly, scarcely, no more, no longer, in no way, never, seldom, rarely,

few, at no time, by no means, no longer, hardly/scarcely….when…, no

sooner…than…, not only…but also…, not until, nowhere, neither…nor…等。等具有否定意义的词或词组位于句首,句子用部分倒装。

例1: No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 我刚到家就下起了雨。

例2: Seldom do I go to work by bus. 我很少乘公共汽车上班。
 例1. I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means____ with my progress. (06年重庆卷)
 A. the teacher is not satisfied  B. is the teacher not satisfied
 C. the teacher is satisfied      D. is the teacher satisfied
  解析:by no means意思是“决不,在任何情况下都不”,放在句首,句子要用部分倒装。故正确答案为D。
例2.──Did Linda see the traffic accident?
 ──No, no sooner____ than it happened.(06年天津卷)
 A. had she gong   B. she had gone   C. has she gone   D. she has gone
   解析:no sooner……than意为“一……就……”,no sooner所在的主句常用过去完成时,that引导的从句用一般过去时,no表示否定意义。故正确答案为A。
 注意:not only…but(also)…连接两个并列分句且包含否定意义的not only放于句首时,not only后的分句要进行部分倒装, but (also)后的分句不进行倒装。
 例3. Not only____ interested in football but ____ beginning to show an interest in it. (02年上海卷)
 A. the teacher himself is; all his students are
 B. the teacher himself is; are all his students
 C. is the teacher himself; are all his students
 D. is the teacher himself; all his students are
 解析:not only位于句首,其后句子用部分倒装的形式,而but also后的句子语序不倒装。故正确答案为D。
3.作状语的介词短语放于句首时引起的句子要全部倒装。有时为了强调将作状语的介词短语放在句首,而将主语放到句末;或者当句子中主语较长时,为了使句子平衡,常以作状语的介词短语开头。
 例1. At the foot of the mountain____.(06年四川卷)
 A. a village lie        B. lies a village
 C. does a village lie   D. lying a village
   解析:介词短语at the foot of the mountain位于句首,句子用全部倒装,其时态应为一般现在时态。故正确答案为B。
   例2. Just in front of our house____ with a history of 1,000 years. (06年上海卷)
 A. does a tall tree stand    B. stands a tall tree
 C. a tall tree is standing   D. a tall tree stands
 解析:介词短语位于句首,句子用全部倒装结构。故正确答案为B。
 4. so/such…that…结构中的so, such连同它所修饰的成分共同位于句首表示强调时,主句要进行部分倒装。

例1:So unreasonable was his price that everybody startled.

他的要价太离谱,令每个人都瞠目结舌。

例2:To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out.

她的彩排进行得那么长, 以致于那两个演员都走出去了。
 例1. So difficult____ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom     

for advice. (06年广东卷)
  A. I did find      B. did I find   C. I have found    D. have I found
  解析: so位于句首且so修饰difficult,主句部分进行部分倒装,整句为一般过去时态。故正确答案为B。
5. so/neither/nor表示前面所说的情况也适合于后者时用倒装结构“so/neither/nor+助动词/系动词/情态动词+主语”(so表示肯定意义,neither/nor表示否定意义)的形式。
 例1. ──It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?
      ──Yes. ____ yesterday. (06年福建卷)
    A. So was it  B. So it was  C. So it is   D. So is it
    解析: so在这里表示昨天的天气情况也跟今天的一样。故正确答案为A。
 例2. —I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible.
      — ____. (04年全国卷Ⅲ)
    A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I
   解析:前句表示否定,则后句也应表示否定,根据上一句的情态动词,第二句中也应该用情态动词would。故正确答案为B。
 但是,如果so表示强调,即强调前面所说的情况的真实性时,其结构则是“so+主语+助动词/系动词/情态动词”的形式,这里的主语同前一个句子的主语指的是同一人或物。如:
 例3. ──Well,I do think the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal which   

can run very fast. (05年辽宁卷)
       ──_____.
   A. So it is   B. So is it   C. So does it   D. So it does
   解析:肯定前一句话中的宾语从句“the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal”, so引导的句子不进行倒装,而且so引导的句子中谓语动词要与该宾语从句中的谓语动词相一致。故正确答案为A。
6. As/though引导的让步状语从句要用倒装结构。即as / though引导的让步从句中必须将表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前),构成“形容词/副词/名词/动词/分词+as/though+主语+谓语的其它部分”的形式。
 例1.______, he talks a lot about his favorites singers after class.(05年重庆卷)
 A. A quiet student as he may be    B. Quiet student as he may be
 C. Be a quiet student as he may be D. Quiet as he may be a student
   解析:整个表语部分quiet student提在as之前
 并且名词student前的冠词a要省略。故正确答案为B。
 例2. ______, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John.(01年上海卷)
 A. As long as I have traveled    B. Now that I have traveled so much
 C. Much as I have traveled       D. As I have traveled so much
 解析:本题中从句与主句之间存在明显的让步关系,故需要选择由as引导的让步状语从句,并且要将副词much提前进行倒装。故正确答案为C。
 使用as/though进行倒装时需要注意的是:
 ①句首有名词时,名词不能带任何冠词。
 ②句首是实义动词时,其他助动词则放在主语之后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,则宾语和状语随实义动词一起放在主语之前。如:
 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
 虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的不尽人意。
7.非真实条件句中的倒装。即在非真实条件句中含有were, had, should等助动词时,可以将if省略,把助动词放在非真实条件句的句首的倒装形式。
 例1._______ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.(06年湖北卷)
 A. Would you be  B. Should you be C. Could you be  D. Might you be
 解析:该句中条件句为非真实条件句,省略if且表示与将来事实相反。故正确答案为B。
 例2. ______ for the free ticket, I would not have gone to see the film.(95年上海卷)
 A. If it is not    B. Were it not  C. Had it not been   D. If they were not
 解析:该条件句中省略if,且表达与过去事实相反。故正确答案为C。
    由高考考点的稳定性可知,只要我们掌握了倒装句这七种重要的考查形式,熟悉其解题规律,就能够在复习时极大的提高复习效率。

倒装句的功能:

一、 表示强调:

 

二、 承上启下

有时倒装可把前一句说到的人或物,或与前一句有联系的人或物在下一句紧接着先说出来,从而使前后两句在意思上的关系更加清楚,衔接更加紧密,起到承上启下的作用。

例1: They broke into her uncle's bedroom and found the man lying on the floor, dead. Around his head was a brown snake.

他们破门进入她叔叔的卧室,发现他躺在地板上死了。一条棕褐色的蛇缠在他头上。

例2: We really should not resent being called paupers. Paupers we are, and paupers we shall remain.

我们确实不应因为被称作穷光蛋而愤愤不平。我们的确是穷光蛋,而且还会继续是穷光蛋。

三、 制造悬念,渲染气氛

在新闻或文学创作中,有时为了内容的需要,或是为了强调,作者常常运用倒装来制造悬念,渲染气氛。如:

Hanging on the wall was a splendid painting. 墙上挂着一幅精美的图画。

四、 平衡结构

英语修辞的一个重要原则是尾重原则,即把句子最复杂的成分放在句尾以保持句子平衡。在语言使用中为了避免产生头重脚轻、结构不平衡的句子,我们常采用倒装语序。

1. 以作状语的介词短语开头:当主语较长或主语所带修饰语较长时,为了使句子平衡,常将状语置于句首,句子用完全倒装语序。

例1:A. To the coal mine came a company of PLA soldiers with orders from the headquarters to rescue the trapped miners.

B. A company of PLA soldiers came to the coal mine with orders from the headquarters to rescue the trapped miners.

一个连队的解放军战士来到了那座煤矿,奉司令部之命解救受困的矿工。

例2:A. On the ground lay some air conditioners, which are to be shipped to some other cities.

B. Some air conditioners lay on the ground, which are to be shipped to some other cities.

地上放着一些空调,等着用船运到其他城市去。

从例句中可看出, 采用倒装语序的A句结构平衡稳妥 ,读起来自然流畅,而采用自然语序的B句结构零乱, 读起来也别扭。因而,在主语较长时就应采用倒装语序以取得理想的表达效果。

2. 以表语开头的句子:有时为了把较长的主语放在后面,须将表语和谓语都提到主语前。如:

Such would be our home in the future. 我们将来的家就是这个样子。

3. 以副词here , there开头的句子,也采用完全倒装来保持句子平衡。如:

Here is the letter you have been looking forward to. 你盼望已久的信在这儿。

五、 使描写生动

有时为了使叙述或描绘更加生动形象,增加语言效果,可将表示方向的副词(如:down, up, out, in, off, on, away等)或拟声词(bang, crack等)置于句首,句子采用全部倒装的语序(主语为人称代词的句子除外)。如:

Up went the rocket into the air. 嗖地一声火箭就飞上天了。

Down jumped the criminal from the third floor when the policeman pointed his pistol at him. 当警察把手枪瞄准那个罪犯时,嘭地一下他就从三楼跳了下去。

Boom went the cannon! 轰隆一声大炮开火了!

Bang came another shot!砰!又是一声枪响!

以上句子简洁明快 ,生动逼真地描述了有关动作 ,令我们一览此类倒装的风采。但这种倒装句的修辞功能在语段中可以体现得更为清楚。

“Stop thief! Stop thief!” There is a magic cry in the sound. The tradesman leaves his counter, ... Away they run, pell—mell, helter—skelter, yelling—screaming, ...

“Stop thief ! Stop thief !” The cry is taking by a hundred voices, ... Away they fly, splashing through the mud, up go the window, out run the people. ( Dickens )

作者在第一段和第二段中分别用副词away, up和out位于句首引出四个倒装句Away they run , Away they fly, up go the window , out run the people。从而制造出一种紧张、急促的气氛 ,生动地刻画了一个紧张、混乱的捉贼场面。

倒装是英语中一个重要的修辞手段。倒装句的使用丰富了我们的语言表达,了解并掌握倒装句各种句式的用法 , 不仅会提高我们对英语语言的欣赏能力 , 对英语表达能力的提高也将大有裨益。因此,写作中适当用一些倒装句式定会使文章表达更生动、有力

 

高考英语倒装句常见考点汇总

1. 考查never置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词never置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为BA)

(1) Never in my wildest dreams _______these people are living in such poor conditions. (安徽卷)

A. I could imagine                         B. could I imagine      

C. I couldn’t imagine                     D. couldn’t I imagine

(2) Never before _____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. (上海卷)

A. has this city been                      B. this city has been

C. was this city                            D. this city was

2. 考查little置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词little置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为DD)

(1) Little ______ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. (安徽卷)

A. he realized                               B. he didn’t realize

C. didn’t he realize                        D. did he realize

(2) They have a good knowledge of English but little _____ they know about German (天津卷)A. have               B. did               C. had                D. do

3. 考查seldom置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词seldom置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为BA)

(1) Seldom ______ any apology when mistakes are made.

A. we receive                                B. do we receive

C. we received                              D. did we receive

(2) Seldom ______ an article that was so full of lies.

A. have I read                                 B. I have read

C. had I read                                  D. I had read

4. 考查hardly / scarcely置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词hardly, scarcely等置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为A)(from www.nmet168.com)

Hardly ______ Edinburgh than they were ordered to return to London.

A. had they reached                        B. they had reached   

C. have the reached                        D. they have reached

5. 考查no sooner等置于句首时的倒装

当no sooner, no longer等结构置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为AC)

(1) —Did Linda see the traffic accident?

—No, no sooner _______ than it happened. (天津卷)

A. had she gone                              B. she had gone

C. has she gone                              D. she has gone

(2) No sooner ______ mowing the lawn than it started raining.

A. have I started                              B. I have started 

C. had I started                                D. I had started

6. 考查nowhere置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词nowhere置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为A)(from www.nmet168.com)

Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else _____such a beautiful place. (2004辽宁卷)

A. can you find                                B. you could find

C. you can find                                D. could you find

7. 考查by no means等置于句首时的倒装

当表示否定意义的副词性短语by no means, on no accounts, in no case, at no time等置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为D)

I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ______ with my progress. (重庆卷)

A. the teacher is not satisfied              B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied                    D. is the teacher satisfied

8. 考查not only置于句首时的倒装

当not only…but also句式的not only部分置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为B)

_____ snacks and drinks but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. (上海)

A. Not only they brought                     B. Not only did they bring

C. Not only brought they                     D. Not only they did bring

9. 考查not until置于句首时的倒装

当not…until句式转换成not until且置于句首时,其后的主句部分习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为B)(from www.nmet168.com)

Not until I began to work _____ how much time I had wasted.

A. didn't I realize                                B. did I realize   

C. I didn't realize                                D. I realized

10. 考查“only+状语”置于句首时的倒装

当“only+状语”置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为DA)

(1) Only then ______ how much damage had been caused. (陕西卷)

A. she realized                                    B. she had realized

C. had she realized                              D. did she realize

(2) _____ by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. (浙江卷)

A. Only                  B. Just             C. Still            D. Yet

11. 考查“so+形容词”置于句首时的倒装

当so…that句式的“so+形容词”部分置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为BB)

(1) ______ that Maric was able to set up new branches elsewhere. (陕西卷)

A. So successful her business was          B. So successful was her business

C. So her business was successful          D. So was her successful business

(2) So difficult ______ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice. (广东卷)

A. I did find          B. did I find            C. I have found      D. have I found

12. 考查类似“so do I”结构的倒装

So do I这类结构表示的是前面提出的某一肯定的情况,后者也同样适用,通常可译为“……也一样”“……也是如此”。如:(答案为CA)(from www.nmet168.com)

(1) — My room gets very cold at night.

— ______. (江苏卷)

A. So is mine           B. So mine is         C. So does mine      D. So mine does

(2) —It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?

—Yes. ______ yesterday. (福建卷)

A. So was it            B. So it was           C. So it is           D. So is it

13. 考查类似“nor / neither do I”结构的倒装

nor [neither] do I这类结构表示的是前面提出的某一否定的情况,后者也同样适用,通常可译为“……也一样”“……也是如此”。如:(答案为B)

If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ______. (全国II)

A. he will either                                     B. neither will he

C. he neither will                                   D. either he will

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

高考英语倒装句常见考点汇总

1. Never in my wildest dreams _______these people are living in such poor conditions. (安徽卷)

A. I could imagine                         B. could I imagine      

C. I couldn’t imagine                     D. couldn’t I imagine

2. Never before _____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. (上海卷)

A. has this city been                      B. this city has been

C. was this city                            D. this city was

 Little ______ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. (安徽卷)

A. he realized                               B. he didn’t realize

C. didn’t he realize                        D. did he realize

3. They have a good knowledge of English but little _____ they know about German (天津卷)A. have               B. did               C. had                D. do

4. Seldom ______ any apology when mistakes are made.

A. we receive                                B. do we receive

C. we received                              D. did we receive

5. Seldom ______ an article that was so full of lies.

A. have I read                                 B. I have read

C. had I read                                  D. I had read

6.Hardly ______ Edinburgh than they were ordered to return to London.

A. had they reached                        B. they had reached   

C. have the reached                        D. they have reached

7. —Did Linda see the traffic accident?

—No, no sooner _______ than it happened. (天津卷)

A. had she gone                              B. she had gone

C. has she gone                              D. she has gone

8. No sooner ______ mowing the lawn than it started raining.

A. have I started                              B. I have started 

C. had I started                                D. I had started

9.Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else _____such a beautiful place. (2004辽宁卷)

A. can you find                                B. you could find

C. you can find                                D. could you find

10.I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ______ with my progress. (重庆卷)

A. the teacher is not satisfied              B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied                    D. is the teacher satisfied

11._____ snacks and drinks but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. (上海)

A. Not only they brought                     B. Not only did they bring

C. Not only brought they                     D. Not only they did bring

12.Not until I began to work _____ how much time I had wasted.

A. didn't I realize                                B. did I realize   

C. I didn't realize                                D. I realized

13. Only then ______ how much damage had been caused. (陕西卷)

A. she realized                                    B. she had realized

C. had she realized                              D. did she realize

14. _____ by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. (浙江卷)

A. Only                B. Just              C. Still           D. Yet

15. ______ that Maric was able to set up new branches elsewhere. (陕西卷)

A. So successful her business was          B. So successful was her business

C. So her business was successful          D. So was her successful business

16. So difficult ______ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice. (广东卷)

A. I did find          B. did I find            C. I have found      D. have I found

17 — My room gets very cold at night.

— ______. (江苏卷)

A. So is mine           B. So mine is         C. So does mine      D. So mine does

18 —It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?

—Yes. ______ yesterday. (福建卷)

A. So was it            B. So it was           C. So it is           D. So is it

19.If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ______. (全国II)

A. he will either    B. neither will he    C. he neither will     D. either he will

英语倒装句专项练习

1.Only after liberation___ to be treated as human beings.

A. did they begin    B. they had begun C. they did begin    D. had they begun

2. Not only ___to stay at home, but he was also forbidden to see his friends.

A. he was forcing   B. he was forced  C. was he forcing  D. was he forced

3. Not until his father was out of prison to school. _______.

A. can John go  B. John can go  C. could John go  D. John could go

4. Never before __seen such a stupid man.

A. am I   B. was I   C. have I   D. shall I

5. Rarely ___about such a silly thing.

A. have I heard of  B. I have heard of  C.I have been hearing of  D. have I heard from

6. Little ___about his own health though he was very ill.

A. he cared   B. did he care  C. does he care   D. he cares

7. Seldom ___him recently.

A.I met   B. I have met   C. have I met   D. didn't I meet

8. Hardly ____down ___he stepped in.

A. had I sat …than  B. I had sat …when  B. had I sat …then  D. had I sat…when

9. No sooner ___asleep than she heard a knock at the door.

A. she had fallen  B. had she fallen  C. she had fell   D. had she fell

10.He did not see Smith. _____

A. Neither did I   B. Nor didn't I   C. Neither I did   D. So didn't I

11. I don't know how to swim, ____.

A. and my sister doesn't neither   B. nor my sister can

C. nor does my sister           D. and my sister does either

12 ---You ought to have given them some advice.

  ---_____, but who cared what I said?

A. So ought you   B. So I ought    C. So did you   D. So I did

13. –It was hot yesterday.  _____.

A. It was so   B. So was it   C. So it was   D. So it did

14. She's passed the test. ____.

A. So am I   B. So have I   C. So I have    D. Also I have

15. You like football very much.   ______.

A. So do I   B. It is the same with me   C. I do too  D. So I do

16. ____, he is honest.

A. As he is poor   B. Poor is he   C. Poor as he is   D. Poor as is he

17. _____, he knows a lot of things.

A.  A child as he is   B. Child as he is  C.  A child as is he   D. Child as is he 

18. _____, you can't lift yourself up.

A. Even you're strong    B. Strong as you are

C. How strong you are   D. In spite you're strong

19.So carelessly___ that he almost killed himself.

A. he drives   B. he drove   C. does he drive   D. did he drive

20.Early in the day____ the news ____the enemy were gone.

A. come…that   B. came…that   C. comes…that  D. came …what

21.Only when you realize the importance of foreign languages ___them well.

A. you can learn  B. can you learn  C. you learned   D. did you learn

22. Look, ____.

A. here the bus comes  B. here is the bus coming 

  C. here comes the bus   D. here the bus is coming

23. “Where is Kate?” “Look, ____. She is at the school gate.”

A. there she is   B. there is she  C. here you are   D. here it is

24. Which of the following sentences is correct?

A. In the teacher came     B. In did come the teacher 

  C. In did the teacher come  D. in came the teacher

25. Out ____, with a stick in his hand.

A. did he rush  B. rushed he   C. he rushed   D. he did rush

1. seldom __ for a visit because of old age.Heis well over eighty

A. does he go out      B. did he go out        B. goes he out

2. in front of the farm house ___

A. does a small boy sit   B. did a small boy sit  C. sit a small boy       D. sat a small boy

3.not a single paper__ the whole term

A. Tom write   B. write Tom    C. did Tom write     D. Tom did write

4. __time, they woule certainly come

A. if they had  B. if had they    C. had they   D both 1 and 2

5. ____,we would not leave

A. should not ist rain tomorrow    B. if should not rain tomoorow

C. is it did not rain tomorrow     D if it does not rain tomorrow

 

倒装句是为了强调,一般句中谓语动词要提前 1. A D C DD

1-5ADCCA   6-10 BCDBA   11-15 CDCBD  16-20 CBBDB   20-25 BCADC


 
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