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【引用】独立主格结构及学习难点  

2011-04-27 07:57:45|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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本文转载自玉兔王子《独立主格结构及学习难点》

基础知识:


(一)概念:

“独立主格结构”是由名词或代词作为逻辑主语,加上分词、形容词、副词、动词不定式或介词短语作为逻辑谓语构成。这种结构在形式上与主句没有关系,通常称为“独立主格结构”。

 

(二)功能:

“独立主格结构”实质就是带有自己主语的非限定性状语从句。众所周知非限定性从句通常以主句的某一成分作为自己的逻辑主语,从而依附于主句。而有些非限定性从句和无动词从句带有自己的主语,在结构上与主句不发生关系,因此成为独立主格结构。其实,虽然叫做独立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用。如:表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用。

 

(三)形式:

独立主格结构在形式上由两部分组成:第一部分由名词或代词担任,第二部分由分词、动词不定式、形容词、副词或介词短语担任。按其结构形式分为:—ing 分词独立主格结构;—ed分词独立主格结构;无动词独立主格结构等。独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随等。常见的独立主格结构有如下几种

独立主格结构的构成:

名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;

名词(代词)+形容词;

名词(代词)+副词;

名词(代词)+不定式;

名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 

(名词(代词)+现在分词)

1、名词/主格代词+现在分词。名词/主格代词与现在分词之间的主谓关系。如:

The girl staring at him (= As the girl stared at him), he didn’t know what to say.

姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。

Time permitting (= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow.

如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。

2、名词/主格代词+过去分词。名词/主格代词与过去分词之间的动宾关系。如:

The problems solved (= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved.

随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。

Her glasses broken (= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn’t see the words on the blackboard.

由于眼镜摔坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。

3、名词/主格代词+不定式。名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。如:

He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help.

借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。

They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore.

他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。

4、名词/主格代词+形容词。如:

An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive.

那架飞机遭遇了空难,无人生还。

So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off.

这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。

5、名词/主格代词+副词。如:

He put on his sweater wrong side out.

他把毛衣穿反了。

The meeting over, they all went home.

会议一结束,他们就都回家了。

6、名词/主格代词+介词短语。如:

The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand.

那男孩手里拿着书去教室。

Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door.

玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。

例句分析

今天是星期天,你不必去上学。

原因从句:

Because it is Sunday, you needn’t go to school.

主语

It being Sunday, you needn’t go to school. (√)

分词 逻辑上的主语

(It being Sunday 构成独立主格结构在句子中作原因状语)

Being Sunday, you needn’t go to school. (×)

(因分词的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,所以句子错误。)

 

官员们都到齐了,宣布开会。

分词表示

All the officials having arrived, the meeting was declared open.

分词逻辑上的主语

时间状语从句:

After (when) all the officials had arrived, the meeting was declared open.

 

天气允许的话,我们去颐和园。

分词表示:

Weather permitting; we’ll go to the Summer Palace.

分词逻辑上的主语

条件状语从句:

If weather permits , we’ll go to the Summer Palace.

 

All the work done, you can have a rest.

分词逻辑上的主语

=All the work is done and you can have a rest. 

所有的工作都完成了,你们可以休息了。

注意 分词做独立主格,有时前面可以加with或without 

 

(四)举例

e.g.

(名词(代词)+ 现在分词)

1、小王病倒了,我们得照顾他。

Xiao Wang falling ill, we have to look after him.

2、客人们走了,她开始打扫房间。

The guests having left, she began to clean the room.

(名词(代词)+ 过去分词)

3、眼镜打破了,她看不见黑板上的字。

Her glasses broken, she couldn’t see the words on the blackboard.

4、她双手交叉在胸前站在那儿。

She stood there, her hands crossed on the chest.

(名词(代词)+ 形容词)

5、街道上又湿又滑,我们只好小心缓慢地骑车。

The streets wet and slippery, we had to ride our bikes slowly and carefully.

6、学生们睁大眼睛在听老师讲课。

The students were listening to the teacher, their eyes wide open.

(名词(代词)+ 副词)

7、会议结束了,我们从大礼堂回到了教室。

The meeting over , we returned to the classroom from the auditorium.

8、他急急忙忙地穿上衬衫,把衬衫穿反了。

He pulled on his shirt, wrong side out.

(名词(代词)+ 不定式)

9、运动会将在下周举行,我们必须为它作准备。

The sports meeting to be held next week, we must get ready for it.

10、如此多的人帮助他,他一定会成功的。

So many people to help, he is sure to succeed.

(名词(代词)+ 介词短语)

11、老人手里拿着烟斗坐在椅子上。

The old man sat on the chair, (with) a pipe in his hand.

12、那个人走出房间,嘴里嚼着食物。

The man went out of the room, food in mouth.

(There being + 名词(代词))

13、没有公共汽车,我们只好步行回家。

There being no bus, we had to walk home.

14、没有什么事情要讨论,会议结束了。

There being no more things to be discussed, the meeting came to an end.

独立主格结构在句中的作用:

(作时间状语)

15、春天到了,树变绿了。

Spring coming on, the trees turn green.

16、问题解决后,他们回到了各自的工作岗位。

The problem (having been) solved, they went back to their own post.

(作原因状语)

17、昨天是星期天,我们没有上学。

It being Sunday yesterday, we didn’t go to school.

18、钥匙丢失了,她进不了房间。

The key(having been) lost, she couldn’t enter the room.

(作条件状语)

19、如果时间许可,我们将参观那个公园。

Time permitting, we’ll visit the park.

20、如果水加到很高的温度,我们会看到水蒸气从中冒出来。

Water heated to a high temperature, we can see steam rising from it.

(作方式或伴随状语)

21、孩子们在堆雪人,他们的手冻得通红。

The children were making a snowman, their hands red with cold.

22、他跌倒在地,鼻子流着血。

He fell to the ground, blood trickling from his nose.

 

构成&作用

1、There being nothing else to do, they gone away.

由于无事可做,他们离开了。(代词+-ing; 表原因)

2、Miss Wang come into the classroom, books in hand.

王老师走进教室,手里拿着书。(无动词结构;表伴随)

3、The old man sat in his chair, his eyes closed.

老人坐在椅子上,闭着眼睛。(名词+-ed; 表状态)

4、Class over, we began to play basketball.

放学了,我们开始玩篮球。(名词+副词;表时间)

5、Without a word more spoken, he picked up the paper.

没再多说一个字,他拾起那张纸。(复合结构;表伴随)

6、The last guest to arrive, our party was started.

最后一位客人到了,我们的晚会开始了。(名词+不定式;表时间)

 

(五)独立主格结构与分词短语作状语的异同:

1、独立主格结构与分词短语都可以转化成状语从句。但是,独立主格结构转换成状语从句后,有自己的逻辑主语,与主句的主语不一致;而分词短语转化为状语从句后,从句的主语与主句的主语相同。例:

(1) If time permit, we’d better have a rest at this weekend. -→Time permitting,we’d better have a rest at this weekend.

如果时间允许,本周末我们最好休息一下。

(2) When we see from the top floor, we can find the garden more beautiful. -→Seeing from the top floor, we can find the garden more beautiful. 从顶楼上看,花园更漂亮。

2、还应该注意,分词结构的逻辑主语不是总和主句的主语一致,而是主句的其他成分。语法上称作“依着原则”;有些分词结构在句子上找不到它的逻辑主语,语法上称作“悬垂分词”。例:

(1) Looking for my watch in the room, it had taken me a long time. 在屋里找表,用了我很长时间。(依着原则)

(2) When planting these flowers, care must be taken not to damage the root.(我们)种花时必须小心,不能碰坏花根。(悬垂分词)

 

(六)独立主格结构与独立成分的异同:

1、有的分词短语可以独立存在,在句子中没有逻辑上的主语,实际上已经成了习惯短语。这些短语有:generally speaking; frankly speaking; judging from; supposing等等。

2、独立主格结构使用介词的问题:

1)当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制

A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.

( hand前不能加his)。

2)当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。

He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.

 

【典型例题】

Weather___, we’ll go out for a walk.

A permitted            B permitting           C permits              D for permitting

答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构,其结构为:名词+分词。由于permit在这里翻译为‘天气允许’,表主动,应用现在分词,故选B。

如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we’ll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。

独立主格的句型转换:

1、转换成状语从句

His homework done, he went to bed.

=After his homework was done, he went to bed.

She not feeling well, we worried about her.

= As she was not feeling well, we worried about her.

Weather permitting, the sports meet will be held the day after tomorrow.

=If weather permits, the sports meet will be held the day after tomorrow.

2、转换成并列句

The young woman came into the cinema, a baby in her arms.

= The young woman came into the cinema and a baby was in her arms.

The boy stood there silently, his eyes fixed upon the black people.

= The boy stood there silently and his eyes were fixed upon the black people.

3、转换成“with”的复合结构

Night falling, we hurried home.

=With night falling, we hurried home.

The signal given, the train left the railway station.

= With the signal given, the train left the railway station.

The old scientist came to the meeting, his wife supporting him.

= The old scientist came to the meeting, with his wife supporting him.

The spy sat on the ground, his hands tied behind his back.

= The spy sat on the ground, with his hands tied behind his back.

 

【模拟试题】

一、单项填空

1. -Oh, it’s you, Steve! I ______ you.

-No surprising. I’ve just had my hair cut.

A. don’t recognize                              B. haven’t recognized

C. didn’t recognize                             D. hadn’t recognized

2. The people, _________ had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross.

A. all whose homes                                   B. all of whose homes

C. all their homes                               D. all of their homes

3. I’m glad to see that you ________ a lot of progress since I ______ you last.

A. will make; have met                        B. have been making; met

C. had made; met                               D. have made; meeting

4. -Where can I get _______ information about a long journey?

-Nothing is of _________ than a map, I think.

A. an; greater help                              B. a piece of; greater price

C. some; better useful                         D. some; greater value

5. You’re not _______ to park here _______ you have a permit.

A. allowed; unless                              B. permitted; in spite

C. let; since                                       D. agreed; even if

6. It’s ________ a long time since I started to teach at this school.

A. quite                 B. much                C. pretty                D. so

7. -Did you remember to return the book to our English teacher?

-Yes. I gave it to him _________ I saw him.

A. once                 B. while                 C. if                      D. the moment

8. He was ________ for work, for he could not imagine life without it.

A. expected           B. worried             C. eager                D. proud

9. I ______ from the crowd an old friend of mine whom I hadn’t seen for ten years.

A. figured out        B. picked out         C. gave out           D. went out

10. I believe the child _________.

A. to tell true                                      B. to have told the truth

C. having the truth                              D. having told the truth

11. Jack _________ the test again; in that case, his father will be very disappointed.

A. must have failed                             B. might fail

C. should fail                                            D. could have failed

12. ________ enough time, but I couldn’t do it better.

A. I was given                                                 B. Given

C. To be given                                                 D. Though I was given

13. Our doctor always talks to me _________ a teacher talking to a child.

A. as same as                B. how                  C. like                   D. similar as

14. -Johnson, there’re a lot of chairs over there. Go and fetch _________ for me.

-Why _______? Mike is sitting there doing nothing.

A. one; me                    B. that; not he        C. it; not him         D. some; I

15. -Let me help you carry your travel case to the station, Granny.

-Oh, no, my boy. It is ____________ heavy. _______.

A. so; What a good boy                             B. not so; Thanks a lot

C. rather; How kind of you                         D. not too; Thank you anyway.

 

二、完形填空

Most children with healthy appetites(食欲)are ready to eat almost anything that is offered to them. A child seldom dislikes food  16  it is badly cooked. The  17  a meal is cooked and served is most important and an  18  served meal will often improve a child’s appetite. Never ask a child  19  he likes or dislikes a food and never  20  likes and dislikes in front of him or allow  21  else to do so. If the father says that he hates fat meat or the mother  22  some vegetables in the child’s hearing he is  23  to copy this action.

Parents should accept the fact that he likes everything and he probably  24.  Nothing healthful should be omitted (删除)from the meal because of a  25  dislike. At meal times it is a good  26  to give a child a small part and let him  27  back for a second helping rather than give him as  28  as he is likely to eat  29  . Do not talk too much to the child  30  meal times, but let him get on with his food; and do not  31  him to leave the table immediately after a meal or he will  32  learn to swallow his food  33  he can hurry back to the toys in his room. On  34  condition must a child be coaxed (哄骗)  35  forced to eat.

16. A. if                    B. until                  C. that                   D. unless

17. A. production              B. process             C. way                  D. method

18. A. immediately     B. attractively         C. eagerly              D. anxiously

19. A. whether           B. what                 C. that                   D. which

20. A. agree               B. tell                    C. discus               D. argue

21. A. everybody              B. anybody            C. somebody         D. nobody

22. A. opposes           B. refuses                     C. admit                D. digest

23. A. willing             B. possible             C. forced               D. likely

24. A. should             B. may                  C. will                   D. must

25. A. supposed         B. proved                     C. considered         D. related

26. A. point               B. custom              C. idea                  D. plan

27. A. ask                 B. come                C. return               D. take

28. A. much                     B. little                  C. few                  D. many

29. A. all the best              B. over and over     C. not at all            D. all at once

30. A. on                   B. over                  C. by                    D. during

31. A. agree               B. allow                 C. force                D. persuade

32. A. hurriedly          B. soon                 C. fast                   D. slowly

33. A. so                   B. until                  C. while                D. although

34. A. some               B. any                   C. such                 D. no

35. A. or                   B. nor                   C. but                   D. neither

 

三、阅读理解


A

Larry Bird was born in 1965 in a small town in the middle western State of Indiana. He was tall, and always good at playing basketball. He attended Indiana State University. Bird led the team into the College Basketball Championship Game.

After completing his college studies, Larry Bird began playing professional(职业的)basketball for the Boston Celtics. He remained with the Celtics for all his professional career(生涯). During those 13 years, Larry Bird was named the Most Valuable Player of the Year three times. He scored more than 21,000 points, and he played in 13 of the highest scoring games in his team’s history. Once he scored 60 points in just one game.

During his very successful basketball career, Larry Bird suffered a number of injuries. In 1989, he stopped playing because of pain in his feet. He returned in 1990, but the pain in his feet returned too. In the next two years he experienced more medical problems, and he missed many games.

Larry Bird did play on the Dream Team-the first Olympic Team with professional players. However, after winning the gold medal in Barcelona, he announced that he would retire(退役)from professional basketball. Larry Bird said he would have liked to play a little longer, but he could not because of his health problems. He also said it was a good time to leave the game. He wanted to be remembered as a winner.

36. The main idea of the second paragraph is that Larry Bird _______.

A. was named the Most Valuable Player of the Year

B. was strong and tall

C. was good at shooting baskets

D. was the oldest player of the team

37. The underlined word “score” in the second paragraph means ________.

A. lost                   B. got                    C. made                D. wrote

38. Which of the following statements is NOT true? ________.

A. Larry Bird began his career soon after his graduation from the college.

B. He lost interest in play basketball after he retired

C. Though he left the team, he didn’t feel too much regret.

D. He thought it a right decision to leave the team.

39. What team did Larry Bird join during his professional career? ________.

A. The Dream Team.

B. The Indiana State University Team.

C. The Boston Celtics.

D. An unknown team.

 


B

A world of chance

The New York Times is now better than ever-All the more reasons to order home delivery now.

NEW-Separate sections(版面)for the Arts, Monday through Thursday, and Sports 7 days a week that you can pull out, take with you or pass along.

NEW-The Dinning In, Dinning Out section, Wednesday, a banquet(宴会)of great meals you can make yourself, order up or eat out.

NEW-The House & Home section, Thursday, filled with useful, interesting features(特别报道)and articles about making the most of all sorts of living spaces.

NEW-An Enlarged, two-part Weekend section, Friday with more ideas about movies, shows, art exhibitions, outdoor and indoor recreation.

Latest news and sports results daily. And of course, daily world and national news, Sunday’s special sections and all the other great features you’ll continue to find in the Times.

Find out just how much YOU can obtain from the Times every day.

Call 1-800-311-1969 or use the postage-paid order card to order convenient home delivery at 50% OFF out regular price.

40. If you want to find out the more information of films you should _________.

A. call 1-800-311-1969

B. go over the House and Home section

C. read the Art section

D. read Weekend section

41. If you want to order home delivery, you may ________.

A. use the order card

B. send E-mail to the sales office

C. telephone sales manager of the Times

D. pay for the postage yourself

42. From the passage we know that _______.

A. the Times sells at a lower price than before

B. the Times has improved a great deal and everyone likes to read it

C. many of the good features of the Times remain unchanged

D. you will learn everything by reading the Times every day

43. The owner of the passage advertises ________.

A. to introduce the new sections

B. to announce the new sections of the Times

C. to make known his new plan of the Times

D. to persuade people to buy the Times

 


C

Packaging(包装)is an important form of advertising. A package can sometimes motivate someone to buy a product. For example, a small child might ask for a breakfast food that comes in a box with a picture of a TV character. The child is more interested in the picture than in breakfast food. Pictures for children to color or cut out, games printed on a package, or small gifts inside a box also motivate many children to buy products-or to ask their parents for them.

Some packages suggest that a buyer will get something for nothing. Food products sold in reusable containers are examples of this. Although a similar product in a plain container might cost less, people often prefer to buy the product in a reusable glass or dish, because they believe the container is free. However, the cost of the container is added to the cost of the product.

The size of a package also motivates a buyer. Maybe the package has “Economy(经济)Size” or “Family Size” printed on it. This suggests that the large size has the most product for the least money. But that is not always true. To find out a buyer has to know how the product is sold and the price of the basic unit.

The information on the package should provide some answers. But the important thing for any buyer to remember is that a package is often an advertisement. The words and pictures do not tell the whole story. Only the product inside can do that.

44. As used in the first paragraph, the word “motivate” most probably mean _______.

A. making one believe what he does is just

B. providing a story that makes one moved

C. supplying a thought or feeling that makes one act

D. making one deep in thought

45. “A buyer will get something for nothing” most probably means that ________.

A. a buyer will not get what he wants to

B. a buyer will gain more than he loses

C. a buyer will get what he pays for

D. a buyer will get something useful free of charge

46. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage? ________.

A. On seeing a well-designed container, a buyer often neglects(忽略)what is inside it.

B. A buyer is also attracted by the size of the container.

C. Children are often made to buy a product by its package with attractive pictures.

D. Package is often a successful advertisement.

47. What suggestion does the author give in the passage? ________.

A. The best choice for buyer is to get a product in a plain package.

B. A buyer should get what he needs most.

C. Do not buy the product which is sold in a glass or dish.

D. The quality of a container has nothing to do with the quality of the product.

 


D

For some time it has been widely accepted that babies learn to do things because certain acts lead to “rewards”; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used to be widely believed that effective rewards, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological(生理的)“drives” as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink or some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise.

It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful effects.

Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to “reward” the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began go study he children’s responses in situations where no milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement “turned on ”the lights-and indeed that they are able to learn quite difficult turns to bring about this result, for example, two left or two right, or even to make as many as three turns to one side.

Papousek’s lights were placed directly in front of the babies and he noticed that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would “smile” when the lights came on. Papousek concluded that it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a basic human need to make sense of the world and bring it under control.

48. According to the author, babies learn to do things which ________.

A. are directly related to pleasure

B. will meet their physical needs

C. will bring them a feeling of success

D. will satisfy their curiosity

49. Papousek noticed in his studies that a baby ________.

A. would make learned responses when it saw the milk

B. would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink

C. would continue the simple movements without being given milk

D. would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink

50. In Papousek’s experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to _______.

A. have the lights turned on

B. be rewarded with milk

C. please their parents

D. be praised

51. The babies would “smile” at the lights because _______.,

A. they need not turn back to watch the lights

B. they succeeded in “turning on” the lights

C. the lights were directly related to some basic “drives”

D. the sight of the lights was interesting

 

 



【试题答案】

1. C   2. B   3. B   4. D   5. A   6. A   7. D   8. C   9. B   10. B   11. B   12. A

13. C   14. A   15. D   16. D  17. C   18. B   19. A   20. C   21. B   22. B   23. D 24. C   25. A   26. C   27. B   28. A   29. D   30. D   31. B   32. B   33. A   34. D 35. A   36. C   37. B   38. B   39. C   40. D   41. A   42. A   43. D   44. C   45. D

46. A   47. D   48. C   49. C   50. A   51. B

 

英语学习难点独立主格结构


独立主格结构的构成形式:独立主格结构,是由一个相当于主语的名词或代词加上非谓语动词、形容词(副)词、或介词短语构成的一种独立成分。该结构不是句子,也不是从句,所以它内部的动词不能考虑其时态、人称和数的变化,它与其主句之间既不能通过并列连词连接也不能有从句引导词引导,常用逗号与其主句隔开。独立主格结构在很多情况下可以转化为相应的状语从句或其他状语形式,但很多时候不能转化为分词形式,因为它内部动词的逻辑主语与主句主语不一致。在做这类题目时一定要小心判断,不能粗心大意。

1. 独立主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随等。

常见的独立主格结构有如下几种:名词/主格代词+现在分词。名词/主格代词与现在分词之间主谓关系。如:
   The girl staring at him (= As the girl stared at him), he didn”t know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。
Time permitting (= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。

2.  名词/主格代词+过去分词。名词/主格代词与过去分词之间的动宾关系。如:
  The problems solved (= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。
   Her glasses broken (= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn”t see the words on the blackboard. 由于眼镜摔坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。

3. 名词/主格代词+不定式。名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。  

   如:He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。
They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。

4. 名词/主格代词+形容词。如:
   An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还。
   So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。

5. 名词/主格代词+副词。如:
   He put on his sweater wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。
   The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。

6. 名词/主格代词+介词短语。如:
The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。
Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door. 玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。

7. 分词短语作状语与独立主格结构的区别:

   1)分词短语作状语时,它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。
  Eg.) Examining the patient, the doctor wrote down something on paper.
       Hit by the arrow, he fell from the horse.
       应避免写分词逻辑主语和句子主语不一致的句子。如:
   Walking along the road, an accident happened. (×)
   Listening to the radio, there was a knock at the door. (×)
   Walking along the road, I saw an accident. (√)
   Listening to the radio, I heard a knock at the door. (√)

   2)但独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不是同一个人或事。
   独立主格结构--名词普通格或代词主格+其它成分(形,副,介短,分词和不定式)(它们之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系)
   独立主格在句子中作状语,可以表示时间、原因、条件和方式、伴随。主要用于书面语,表示描述.
  eg.) 1.今天是星期天,你不必去上学。
  A) 用原因从句表达: Because it is Sunday, you needn't go to school.
  B) 用分词独立结构表达: It being Sunday, you needn't go to school.
   但不能写成:Being Sunday, you needn't go to school. (因分词的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,所以句子错误。)

   这种构成形式内部的逻辑主语是分词的动作执行者,分词表示的动作不是整句主语发出的动作,而是其逻辑主语发出的动作。又如:
   There being no bus, we had to walk home.== As there was no bus, we had to walk home.
   It being Sunday, the library doesn't open.  ==  As it is Sunday, the library doesn't open.
 eg.) 2.官员们都到齐了,宣布开会。
    A) 用分词独立结构表达: All the officials having arrived, the meeting was declared open.
    B) 用时间状语从句表达: After (when) all the officials had arrived, the meeting was  declared open.
     3. 天气允许的话,我们去颐和园。
   A) 用分词独立结构表达: Weather permitting ,we'll go to the Summer Palace.
   B) 用条件状语从句表达: If weather permits , we'll go to the Summer Palace.
     4.所有的工作都完成了,你们可以休息了。
  用分词独立结构表达:All the work done, you can have a rest.
                    =All the work is done and you can have a rest.
     5.他看着这情景,张大着嘴。 He watched the scene, his mouth ( being ) wide open.
     6. 会议结束后,他们都回家了。The meeting (being) over, they all went home. (逻辑谓语是adj./adv 时,前面省略being)
8. 有时,独立主格结构可以由with引出:
  eg.) The child trembled, with hands red with cold.
  The park is beautiful with all the trees putting on a tender green. 树叶都绿了,使得公园很漂亮。
  The road is beautiful, with trees and flowers growing well here and there.
有时, 这种结构中的冠词或物主代词可省去,称为泛指结构,反之,称为特指结构.
  Eg.) He came out, umbrella in hand.
     =He came out, with an umbrella in his hand.
   The guards stood at attention, guns on shoulders.
   = The guards stood at attention, with guns on their shoulders.
9.分词固定短语:(有时表示说话人态度的分词结构已成为固定短语,不遵循其逻辑主语和句子主语一致的原则)。
   eg.)1.Judging from her accent, she must be an American.
       2.Genarally speaking, the living costs are relatively higher in cities.
       3.Talking of the world resources , they are very limited.
       4.No wonder he was taken ill, considering that he had been overworking for years.
       5.Taking as a whole, the experiment was a success.

 

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