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【引用】虚拟语气重、难点和考点精练精析  

2011-04-24 09:01:39|  分类: 语法习题专练 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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虚拟语气的四种表现形式和试题特点

一、用“情态动词+动词完成式”表“虚拟语气”,此结构表示与事实相反或可能相反的虚拟假设。常考的情态动词有should, ought to, be to, can (could), needn’t等,分别表示“本应该;本可以;本不必”,其中对过去事实的虚拟假设是最主要的考点。
例1(2004全国卷III):
Mr. white ____ at 8:30 for the meeting, but she didn’t show up.
A. should have arrived       B. should arrive   
C. should have had arrived    D. should be arriving
分析  由于客观上“没有露面”,所以“应该到达”只是一种虚拟假设;同时假设的事发生在过去,所以答案是A。值得一提的是,表对过去事情的推断,要用“情态动词+不定式完成式”,这是高考推断类试题中的热点。
例2(2006陕西卷):
As you worked late yesterday, you ____ have come this morning.
A. needn’t    B. mayn’t    C. can’t    D. mustn’t
分析  注意句子间的逻辑关系:由于你昨晚工作得太晚,所以今天上午就“不必”来了。这种分析符合逻辑;同时空格后是完成时态,可见说此话时“你”已经来了,所以这里说的只是一种虚拟语气。答案是A,needn’t have done sth.“本不必做某事”(实际已经做了)。
二、虚拟条件句。表与事实相反或可能相反的虚拟假设,其谓语(以do为例)在条件句和主句中的表达形式分别如下:


时     间

从      句

主      句

与现在事实相反

did

would/should/could/might + do

与过去事实相反

had done

would/should/could/might +have done

与将来事实相反

did/should do/were to do

would/should/could/might +do


高考英语中的虚拟条件句常常以省略if的形式命题,考生必须知道,这时条件句中的主、谓语要用倒装结构。
例3(2006湖北卷):
____ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.
A. Would you be    B. Should you be    C. Could you be  D. Might you be 
分析  四个选项都是倒装式,但是句子并没有用问号,可见这是一种特殊的语法倒装现象。我们学过的情态动词置于句首的语法知识中只有一种情况,即省略if的虚拟条件句。根据上面虚拟条件句的表达式可知只有B符合条件,所以答案是B,这时省略了if的语将来事实可能相反的虚拟条件句,也可改成Were you to be或者Were you。这道题还有一个特点,条件句是虚拟语气,主句是表述真实事实的陈述句。这也是近年来高考命题的一种趋势:将虚拟语气和非虚拟语气结合起来命题,让考生根据具体的语境进行判断,值得注意。
例4(2006福建卷):
If it were for the fact that she ____ sing, I would invite her to the party.
A. couldn’t    B. shouldn’t    C. can’t    D. might not
分析  整个句子看上去是一个与将来事实可能相反的虚拟假设,但是that所引导的同位语从句表述的却是事实,所以答案应该是C。
三、用“should +动词原形”表虚拟语气。通常可用于以下几种场合:
1、在动词insist, order, command, suggest, advise, propose, demand, require, request, want(要求), ask(要求)作谓语的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”表虚拟语气,此时should通常可以省略。
例5(2005江浙四市联考):
Recently quite a lot of experts ____ that another law on wildlife protection ____ as soon as possible.
A. suggested; must be passed     B. have suggested; be passed
C. were suggested; was passed    D. suggested; being passed
分析  做这道题,除了注意题干中的时间副词Recently(告诉我们须用完成时态)外,还得采用语法分析法,对各个选项两空之间的相互联系进行分析:由于suggest后面的宾语从句要用“(should)+ 动词原形”表虚拟语气,所以答案是B。又如:
The Chinese Government demanded that the U.S. be responsible for the whole matter.
中国要求美国对事件负全部责任。
2、在It is suggested / ordered / proposed / important / necessary / a pity / a shame等结构后的主语从句中,以及在expect, imagine, believe, think等动词的否定或疑问形势后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,表惊奇和意外。
例6(2001上海卷):
You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman           be so rude to a lady.
       A. might    B. need    C. should      D. would
分析  答案是C,should在句子中表惊奇。
四、在wish, as if, would rather, Would you mind, It’s time等后面的从句中,以及在If only
开头的强调句中,谓语动词要用过去式(表现在的事)或过去完成式(表过去的事)表虚拟语气。
例7(2002上海春卷):
How I wish every family ____ a large house with a beautiful garden!
A. has    B. had    C. will have    D. had had
分析  答案是B,如上所述,wish后的宾语从句其谓语动词要用过去时态表虚拟语气。
例8(1995全国卷):
When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____.
A. breaks    B. has broken    C. were broken    D. had been broken
分析  答案是C,were broken是系、表结构。这里谈的是非客观事实的表面现象,所以在as if引导的表语从句中,要用一般过去时态表虚拟语气。
及时巩固  根据语境,选择最佳答案填入空格,然后参见题后的参考答案。
1.       ____ the flight be out of control, stay calm and listen for instructions from the cabin crew.
A. Should    B. Would    C. Can    D. Might  
2.       — Look at the black clouds. It ____ soon. 
          — Sure. If only we ____ out!
   A. is raining; didn’t come    B. is to rain; won’t start
   C. will rain; haven’t started   D. is going to rain; hadn’t come
3.       — We ____ to the camping place; it is beneficial to our health. 
          — Yes. A drive was not at all necessary.
   A. should have walked    B. needn’t have walked
   C. might walk           D. could have walked
4.       Order came that all the army supply ____ to the front before daybreak. 
A. be sent   B. should send   C. were sent   D. should have sent  
5.       It is strange that my watch ____ nowhere!  
A. is found    B. has been found    C. should be found     D. should have found
6.       He’s always talking so much about the Antarctica as if he ____ there. 
A. had been    B. has been    C. has gone    D. was
7.       The suggestion has been made ____ the basketball game ____ put off.
A. for; to    B. that; be    C. which; should be    D. to; being
8.       ____ to travel in space, I would take as many pictures of our beautiful country as possible from space. 
A. If I am    B. I were    C. Should I    D. Were I
9.       If it were not for the fact that you ____ too busy, I would ask you to help me do this right now.
A. were    B. had been    C. are    D. have been 
10.   — It’s really a miracle! You’re still alive at all after such a terrible accident! 
        — Thank goodness! But for the stick of the big tree, I ____.
A. would have been killed    B. had been killed    C. be killed    D. was killed
 
Key:  1—5 ADAAC  6—10 ABCCA

虚拟语气重、难点和考点精练精析(1)

根据语法知识和语境,选择最佳选项填空。
1.       — How I wish I ____ to Tibet together with the tourist group! 
          — That’s enough! Let’s wish them a peaceful journey.
A. studied    B. am studying    C. had studied    D. were studying
2.       ____ to be double in 2010, what would Indian government do with the problem of food?
A. If the population was     B. Were the population 
C. If the population should   D. It is supposed that the population were
3.       If it ____ for the fact that you are too busy, I would ask you to help me do this right now.
A. is    B. were    C. were not    D. had not been  
4.       Just imagine! What ____ living in the modern city without electricity, even only one hour?
A. will happen    B. would happen    C. should happen    D. would have happened
5.       I’ve met some uneducated fellows who ____ as if they ____ all there is to know about. 
A. act; know    B. acted; knew    C. act; knew    D. acted; know 
6.       Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ____, too cold for people to stay on.
A. would be freezing cold    B. will be freezing cold 
C. would be frozen cold     D. can freeze coldly
7.       Order has come that all the materials ____ to the earthquake-stricken areas before daybreak.
A. be sent   B. should send   C. were sent   D. should have sent
8.       He paid the full price for the train, when he ____ have bought one at half the price. 
A. could    B. would    C. must    D. need 
9.       Some insisted that more foreign capital ____ for our factory, but some others insisted that it ____ wrong to do so.  
A. should bring in; be       B. should be brought in; was
C. had brought in; was      D. bring in; should be
10.   It is really strange that my cell phone ____ nowhere! I used it just now.
A. is found    B. has been found    C. should be found     D. should have found
11.   — Antarctica is so mystically described by some people. Do you know anything about it?
        — No. If only I ____ there!
A. had been    B. has been    C. has gone    D. was
12.   Many citizens suggest that smokers ____ in public, which suggests that they ____ the harm of smoking. 
A. be fined; have realized    B. should be fined; should have realized
C. are fined; have realized    D. can be fined; might have realized
13.   The suggestion has been made ____ the basketball game ____ put off. 
A. for; to    B. which; should be    C. that; be    D. to; being
14.   To tell the truth, I would rather that I ____ the pain instead of you. You don’t know how worried I was. 
A. took    B. had taken    C. have taken    D. should have taken
15.   — Speaking of travel, by the way, have you ever been to Dunhuang Rock Cave? 
        — No, but I wish I ____.
A. have    B. had    C. could    D. have been
答案与简析:
1.       D。从语境可知这里指的是现在的事,而wish后用过去时标虚拟语气,所以选D。
2.       B。省略if后,虚拟条件句的主、谓语要倒装。
3.       C。这里说的是与现在事实相反的虚拟假设,所以用虚拟语气,在虚拟条件句中谓语动词用过去式,be动词一概用were。
4.       B。without短语相当于一个if引导的虚拟条件句,主句表达的是与现在事实相反的虚拟假设。
5.       C。前一空是真实的叙述,后一空是as if从句中的虚拟语气句,用过去式表示。
6.       A。介词Without短语代替虚拟条件句,主句标语现在事实相反的虚拟假设。
7.       A。order引起的同位语从句要用“should+动词原形”表虚拟语气。
8.       A。“could+完成时态”表对过去事实的虚拟假设,意思是“本可以”。
9.       B。insist后的宾语从句若表“坚持要别人做某事”,则用虚拟语气;若表对一种存在现象的看法等,则不用虚拟语气。
10.   C。“It is necessary (important, natural, desirable, strange, advisable, a pity, a shame, no wonder, etc.) + that-从句”表惊奇、不相信、惋惜等。这种场合的should通常不省略为好。
11.   A。If only后的句子用过去式表虚拟语气。
12.   A。suggest表“暗示;表明;仿佛”时,不用虚拟语气。
13.   C。前一句是同位语从句;suggestion作主语时从句要用虚拟语气(第二空),这里省略了should。
14.   B。would rather后用过去时态表虚拟语气
15.   B。wish后用过去时态表虚拟语气,had是had been to Dunhuang Rock Cave的省略式。
 

虚拟语气重、难点和考点精练精析(2)

根据语法知识和语境,选择最佳选项填空。
1. The girl was killed unfortunately. She ____, though, but for the few aftershocks.
     A. should have saved        B. should be saved,
     C. could have been saved     D. couldn’t have been saved
2.  — It turned out just to be a slight cold, nothing serious.
     — What have I told you about it? You ____ have been so frightened.
     A. needn’t    B. couldn’t    C. mustn’t      D. might not 
3.  Had you listened to the doctor, you ____ from the terrible disease now. 
     A. don’t suffer             B. shouldn’t suffer    
     C. would not be suffering    D. could not have suffered
4.  ____ to travel in space, I would take as many pictures of our beautiful country as possible from space. 
     A. If I am    B. I were    C. Should I    D. Were I
5.  — I thought you had gone abroad.
     — No, but I ____ but for the unexpected matter.
     A. ought to    B. ought to have    C. had    D. needn’t have done that
6.  — It’s really a miracle! You’re still alive at all after such a terrible accident! 
     — Thank goodness! But for the stick of the tree branch, I ____.
     A. would have been killed    B. had been killed    C. be killed    D. was killed
7.  ____ you mind if I called you by your name directly?
     A. Do    B. Would    C. Could    D. Will 
8.  The girl’s request was that the salesman ____ to her for his rude deed.
     A. apologize    B. apologized    C. could apologize     D. should have apologized   
9.  The workers insisted that their strike ____ lawful and the government ____ satisfy their request.
     A. be; find    B. was; didn’t find    C. be; shouldn’t find    D. was; shouldn’t find
10. Jane’s pale face suggested that she ___ ill, and her parents suggested that she ____ a medical examination.
     A. be; should have    B. was; have    C. should be; had    D. was; has
11. ____ that all the policemen should hurry to the earthquake-stricken area to carry out the rescue before dusk.
     A. It is wanted    B. It wants    C. There wants    D. As is wanted
12. Long ____ the relationship between the peoples of our two countries!
     A. lives    B. lived    C. live    D. living
13. It’s time that we ____ developing eco-agriculture to meet the demand of society development.
     A. consider    B. considers    C. has considered    D. should consider
14. — Now we can do nothing but try this method for rescue.
      — But what if it ____?
     A. fails    B. should fail    C. failed    D. has failed 
15. May every good fellow under the sun ____ safely all the life!
     A. live    B. lives    C. lived    D. should live
答案与简析:
1.  C。这是省略了if-条件句的与过去事实相反的虚拟假设,表“遗憾”和“抱怨”。
2.  A。表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气“本不必”。
3.  C。这里主、从句表示的时间不同,叫“错综时间条件句”。
4.  D。省略if的虚拟条件句,与将来可能事实相反的虚拟假设。
5.  B。这是ought to have gone abroad的省略形式。
6.  A。but for短语相当于一个虚拟条件句,主句是与过去事实相反的虚拟假设。
7.  B。只有在“Would you mind if-从句”中,条件句采用过去式表虚拟语气。
8.  A。名词request后的表语从句中的谓语用“should+动词原形”,前面省略了表虚拟语气的情态动词should。
9.  D。insisted后的第一个宾语从句陈述的是事实,要用陈述语气,后一空才表虚拟语气。
10. B。根据句意,可知第二空该用虚拟语气,省略了should;第一空的意思是“表明”,不用虚拟语气。
11. A。want在这里表“要求”,从句用虚拟语气;it是形式主语,因此want必须用被动式。
12. C。表“祝愿”用动词原形虚拟语气。
13. D。It’s time后的宾语从句的谓语动词用过去时态或“should+动词原形”表虚拟语气。
14. B。本句意思是:what should we do if it should fail,在口语中虚拟语气经常省略主语,只保留从句。
15. A。May表“祝愿”,后面的句子用动词原形表虚拟语气。

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