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【引用】非谓语动词  

2011-04-12 20:31:28|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
本文转载自兰银清博客《非谓语动词》
 

                             谓语动词用法

                            By 兰银清

概念:动词在句中作谓语动词以外的成分叫做非谓语动词。动词非谓语形式有不定式 ( to do),

动名词(doing),现在分词(doing)和过去分词(done)。非谓语动词主要应该掌握其在句子中所作成分;

非谓语动词的时态与语态;非谓语动词的否定形式;非谓语动词的复合结构和 with结构。

特别提醒:为增加难度,在非谓语动词练习中,有少量谓语动词。

一,非谓语动词在句子中所作成分

1, 作主语(动名词或者不定式)

作主语的常见形式:doing/being done to do/to be done

表示主动的动作,用doing/to do; 表示被动的动作用being done/to be done。

Going on holiday always makes me feel nervous.

Playing cards is banned here.

Being a doctor means you are always busy.

Being cught in a traffic jam is a reaaly bad thing.

It makes me feel nervous to go on holiday.

It is a reakky bad thing to be caught in a traffic

注意:直接用动名词作主语比较常见;不定式作主语时,常常用it作形式主语,而.

把不定式放在句末。

 

小试身手:单项选择(适合广东外考生):

1)----What made Mr. Lan so sad?             

---- ________ his watch.

A Lost      B   Lose      C Losing         D Because of losing

2)--What made you so sad?

--- _______ by my math teacher.

A Scolded        B because of being scolded     C Being scolded       D  Be scolded

3)It is necessary to be prepared for a job interview. _______ the answer ready will be of great help.

A  To have had       B Have had      C Have                D Having

4)改错: Watch TV demands little effort.

答案:1)C  2)C    3) D  4) 改Watch为Watching

小试身手:用所给词的适当形式填空(适合广东考生):

1,_____________(lose) his watch made Mr. Lan very sad.

2,_______________(scold) by my math teacher made me sad.

3, It is really bad thing_____________(catch) in a traffic jam

4, It took ages___________(repair )the temple.

参考答案:

1,Losing     2, Being scolded        3 to be caught .   4 to repair

 

2,作表语(不定式,动名词,现在分词,过去分词)。

1)动名词doing和不定式to do都可以作表语,表示内容,一般没有多大区别。

What I suffer is not being able to sleep.

A more recent crime is hacking into computer systems.         

Your task today is to clean the classroom.

His aim/wish is to become a pilot.

What you need to do is (to )push the button.

2)感受类动词的现在分词(doing)表示特征,过去分词(done)表示状态。

The film was so moving that I was moved to tears.

We all felt surprised by his sudden decision.

Those people are really intereting. Why not go and visit them?

拓展: surprising/surprised              amazing/amazed          shocking/shocked  

        astonishing/astonished             puzzling/puzzled         confusing/confused

       disapointing/disappointed          depressing/depressed…    exciting/excited

       interesting/interested…           在其它情况,他们的区别也是一样的。

His sudden departure made us all surprised.

With a puzzled look on his face, he turned to the teacher for help.

I will try my best to get you interested in my lesson.

3) 过去分词常常在下列短语中作表语:

be worried about;be concerned about(对……..担心、关注)

be pleased with;   be surprised at/by

be married to;be interested in;be satisfied with;be faced with

be armed with(装备有……) ;be lost in;  be dressed in;

be seated on/in;       be located in/on/at(位于某处);         

be engaged to(与……订婚); be engaged in 忙于某事;     be caught in; be absorbed in (专注于某事)

be used to dong ;       be accustomed to doing(习惯于); be devoted to doing(献身于)  ;

be addicted to doing(对…..有瘾)          

be determined to do(决心做某事)

特别注意:这些短语除作主语和谓语外,都应该去掉be动词

例如:

He was caught in a traffic jam, so he was late. 

Being caught in a traffic jam is a bad thing.                                  

Caught in a traffic jam, he felt a little angry.

4) get done表示自身发出的动作或者被动的动作

get lost; get married; get engaged; get divorced;get dressed; get changed; get shaved;get seated; get started 

get burnt; get paid;  get run over; get injured; get killed;get broken; get accepted etc.

When you get lost in a forest, what should you do ?

I get paid by the month in this company

5)sb/sth seems/appears/happens+不定式   (sb/sth is said/is reported +不定式)

6) remain seated/unknown/ untouched /uncovered(  无覆盖物的)/sitting 分词此时强调状态

     remain to be seen/to be settled  有待被证明、解决 (不定式此时强调动作)

7) be decided(决定好了), be gone (走了;去世了), be lost(掉了), be stolen(是偷的)

be finished(完成了), be done(完成了;食物熟了), be polluted(受污染了),  be broken(破碎了)…

以上结构中,过去分词表示状态

Everything is decided.

When I got there, he was gone.

When I got there, I found my wallet lost/missing.

The car is stolen. It doesn’t belong to him.

When you are finished/done, call me.

The meat isn’t quite done yet.

小试身手,:单项选择(适合广东外考生):

(1)_____ in the forest for three days, the four boys were finally saved by the local policemen.

A  Having lost            B  Lost     C  Being lost        D Losing

(2)When I came in, I found him______ in the sofa.

A  being seated           B  seated     C  seating         D  sit

(3)Sarah, hurry up. I am afraid you won’t have time to get______ before the party.

A changed     B change     C changing       D to change

(4 ) It remains ______ whether Jim will be fit enough to play in the finals.

A seen    B to be seen     C  seeing      D  to see

(5)When I came back, he still remained _____ on the bench.

A seating    B   seated     C  to sit     D  sit

(6) You should tell Mr. Lan the truth. He seems _______ everything.

A having known           B to have known      C knowing     D to know

(7)_______  in a traffic jam is a depressing thing.

A Being caught          B Catching      C to catch               D caught

(8) _______  with so much trouble, we failed to finish the task on time.

A  Faced     B Facing    C  Face    D To face

(9) What he said really made us _____________.

A to interest    B interested    C interesting    D interest

(10) With a __________ look _______ his face, he turned the teacher for help.

A puzzling ; on    B puzzled ;on    C puzzling; in       D puzzling; on 

答案:1) B  2) B 3) A 4) B 5) B  6) B  7) A    8) A  9 B    10) B

小试身手:用所给词的适当形式填空(适合广东考生):

(1)___________(Lose) in the forest for three days, the four boys were finally saved by the local policemen.

(2)When I came in, I found him__________(seat) in the sofa.

 (3)Sarah, hurry up. I am afraid you won’t have time to get______ (change)before the party.

 (4 ) It remains ______ (see)whether Jim will be fit enough to play in the finals.

 (5)When I came back, he still remained _____ (seat)on the bench.

 (6) You should tell Mr. Lan the truth. He seems _______ (know)everything.

 (7)_______(catch) in a traffic jam is a depressing thing.

(8) _______(face)  with so much trouble, we failed to finish the task on time.

(9)A more recent crime is__________(hack)into computer systems.

(10) With a __________(puzzle) look on his face, he went to the eacher for help.

(11) I will try my best to get you___________(interest) in my lessons.

(12)When I got there, I found my wallet __________(lose).

 

  参考答案:

1)Lost            2) seated           3) changed      4) to be seen       5) seated

6) to have known     7) Being caught     8) Faced      9) hacking/to hack    10) puzzled

11) interested        12) lost

3,作宾语(不定式,动名词)

1)某些动词或者动词短语后必须用动名词作宾语

admit(to)doing, appreciate, avoid(避免),consider(考虑) ,deny(否定), delay(推迟), dislike, enjoy,

escape(逃避), excuse, finish, ,forgive, imagine (想象),mind, miss, mention , practice, postpone(推迟),

quit(放弃),risk, suggest, understand(理解), be busy, be worth, can’t help(情不自禁),

can’t stand(无法忍受),,feel like, give up, insist on, keep on , put off.  例如:

He couldn’t help laughing.      Nobody enjoys being laughed at.

2),介词之后用动名词作宾语。

He left without saying “good-bye”.          After being operated on, he felt much better.

He is strongly against charging entrance fees.  He was woken up by some children shouting outside.

How about us having a rest.

spend/waste/lose time (in) doing     prevent/stop…(from)doing

keep…from doing            have some difficulty/trouble (in) doing

You can’t imagine what difficulty Mr Li has living in Beijing.

The company wasted millions of pounds investing in out-of-date technology. 

注意:

l          but, except 这两个介词视具体情况决定。

Did he really have no choice but to give in.   

He has nothing to do but play cards.

He is fond of doing nothing but playing cards.

说明:but/except前有实义动词do,一般用省to不定式;无实义动词do,一般用带to不定式;

有时受前面动词影响用动名词。

l         下面短语中的to是介词,不是不定式符号,后面接动名词

get/be used to, look forward to(盼望),pay attention to, turn to(转向于), lead to, stick to(坚持)

,get down to(着手认真做),be devoted to(献身于),the key to, see to(处理)

adapt (oneself )to(适应),  adjust (oneself) to(适应), be addicted to; get accustomed to doing(习惯于);

 come close to几乎…   when it comes to (谈到……); on one’s way to (马上要……)

例如:   Special attention should be paid to protecting the environment.

3)某些动词必须用不定式作宾语。hope, wish, manage,afford, agree等。

He managed to send his son to a good school.

4),有些动词后可以接不定式,也可以接动名词。(有时结构不同;有时意义不同)

begin/start/continue/like/love/prefer/hate to do=begin/start/continue/like/love/prefer/hate doing

would like/love /preferto do sth

I would like to have a coffee now.=I feel like having a coffee now.

l         need/ want/deserve doing=need/want/require/deserve to be done 需要/值得被

need/want//deserve to do 需要/值得做

The house needs/wants repairing/to be repaired.   

We all need to work.

He deserves praising/to be praised.                

He deserves to win a first prize.

l         allow/permit/forbid/advise/encourage doing

allow/permit/forbid/advise/encourage sb to do

be allowed/permitted//advised/forbidden/encouraged to do

We don’t allow smoking here.    

We don’t allow anybody to smoke here.

Nobody is allowed to smoke here.

  remember/forget/regret doing(记住曾经……)

remember/forget/regret to do(记住将去做……)

go on doing 继续做同一件事           go on to do  接着做另一件事

try doing sth 试着做某事              try to do sth  尽力做某事

(sth)mean doing sth 意味着…          (sb)mean to do sth  打算做某事

stop doing sth   停止正在做的事情     stop to do sth 停下来以便做某事

小试身手:单项选择(适合广东外考生)

(1) Does he have any choice except ______ (give) in?

A to give  B give  C giving  D gives

(2)When asked by the police, he said he remembered ______ but not______

A arriving ; to leave  B arriving ; to leave  C to arrive; arriving   D arriving; leaving

(3)This bicycle needs________, so you need _______ it repaired.

A  repairing; have  B repairing; to have   C to be repaired; having  D being repaired; to have

(4) Unfortunately, I forgot _______ my umbrella, so I got wet all over.

A to bring        B bringing    C having brought    C to have brought

(5) The key to _______ well is to pay attention to _______  to our teacher, Mr. Lan carefully in class.

A study; listening     B studying ;  listening  C studying;  listen           D study  ; listen

(6) I can’t stand_____ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses _____ talking while she works.

A working ; stopping    B  to work ; stopping   C working; to stop   D to work ;to stop

(7) At the beginning of class, the noise of desk_______ could be heard outside the classroom.

A opened and closed                 B to be opened and closed 

C being opened and closed            D to open and close

(8) I don’t want _____ like I am speak ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair.

A to sound    B to be sounded    C sounding     D being sounded

答案1) A  2) D 3) B 4) A 5) B  6) C 7) C 8) A

小试身手:用所给词的适当形式填空(适合广东考生)

(1) Does he have any choice except __________ (give) in?

(2)When asked by the police, he said he remembered __________(arrive) but not___________(leave).

(3)This bicycle needs________(repair), so you need __________ (have)it repaired .

(4) Unfortunately, I forgot _________(bring )my umbrella, so I got wet all over.

(5) The key to __________ (study)well is to pay attention to _______(listen) to our teacher, Mr. Lan

 carefully in class.

(6) I can’t stand__________ (work)with Jane in the same office. She just refuses _____ (stop)talkin

while she works.

(7) At the beginning of class, the noise of desk_______(open) and closed could be heard outside

 the classroom.

(8) I don’t want __________(sound)like I am speak ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair.

参考答案:

1)to give      2) arriving; leaving       3) repairing/to be repaired; to have     4)  to bring

5) studying; listening      6) working; to stop      7) being opened      8) to sound

4,非谓语动词作定语

非谓语动词作定语的常见形式有:  to  do(主动,将来); to be done(被动,将来); 

doing(主动;进行) ; being  done(被动,进行); done(被动,完成)

1)to do/to be done:不定式作定语,如果在句中能找到动作的发出者,用主动;

如果找不到动作的发出者, 用被动.

I have a lot of things (to do) this afternoon.   The question (to be discussed tomorrow) is very important.

注意:口语中找不到动作的发出者也可以用主动.

“Do you have any clothes to be washed/to wash ?”,she asked her husband.

“Do you have any papers to be typed/to type?”, the secretary asked the manager.

2),  done

(1)及物动词的过去分词作定语表示被动,完成。

The concert( given by the band )was a great success.

 =The concert( that/which was given by the band) was a great success

The machines( introduced from Japan last year) are in good use.

=The machines( which /that were introduced from Japan) are in good use.

(2),及物 动词的过去分词所限定的名词是泛指的名词,过去分词此时只表示被动,不强调完成

A drop of water (seen through a microscope )is full of living things.

=A drop of water (that/which is seen through a microscope )is full of living things.

Money (earned by hard work )should be spent wisely.

=Money (that/which is earned by hard work )should be spent wisely.

(3),不及物动词的过去分词作定语只表示完成,不表示被动。

fallen leaves, a retired teacher, developed countries, boiled water, an escaped prisoner, a much-traveled man.

3) doing

(1)doing作定语一般表示“主动;进行”

Do you know the girl (dancing with your brother)?

=Do you know the girl( who/that is dancing with your brother) ?

The man( talking with our English teacher )is my father.

= The man( who/that is talking with our English teacher) is my father.

(2)如果现在分词限定的是表示泛指的名词,现在分词只表示主动,不表示进行.

Women( looking after children) often get paid ¥10  an hour

Women( who/that look after children )often get paid ¥ 10 an hour.

(3)动名词作定语表示用途

teaching building       swimming pool,  building materials,publishing house

(4) surprising, puzzling, disappointing, confusing,amazing 等作定语表示特征;surprised. puzzled,disappointed,confused,amazed等作定语表示状态

a confusing question   with a confused look

(5)注意有些现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别:

developing countries/ developed counties          boiling water /boiled water

falling rocks /fallen rocks

3) being done 被动,进行

The question (being discussed now )is very important.

=The question( that/which is being discussed now )is very important

正在讨论的问题很重要。

试比较:

The question (to be discussed tomorrow) is important.

明天将讨论的问题很重要。

The question (discussed yesterday )was very important.

昨天讨论的问题很重要。

4) ,doing/done/having done可以用作非限定性定语

Mr Li, well known for teaching well, has been honored as national model teacher.

=Mr Li, who is well known for teaching well, has been…

I found a notice on the door, reading“Don’t disturb.”

= I found a notice on the door, which read“Don’t disturb.”

The manager, _________it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room.

A, who has made      B, having made      C, made        D, making

说明:正确答案是B,分词的完成形式可以作非限定定语.

此题A 项,如果变为who had made 就是正确答案。

5)抽象名词(way, possibility, chance,  opportunity, hope 等)的后置定语往往有to do和of doing 两种形式。

way to do sth=way of doing     chance to do sth=chance of doing

6)序数词的后置定语用不定式

Who was the first to arrive?

 

小试身手:单项选择(适合广东外考生)

(1),Prices of daily goods ______(buy)   through a computer can be lower than store prices.

A being bought        B bought         C buyingg        D to buy

 (2), She felt so______ that she couldn’t drive the car at such a ______ speed.

A frightening, frightening   B frightened, frightened  C frightening, frightened    D frightened, frightening

(3,) I found a notice on the door, ____“Don’t disturb.”

A  saying                B  said             C  having said       D  to say

(4) The man referred to _________  me a lot while I was in university.

A help       B helping     C helped        D had helped

(5), The questions_______ at the meeting now are very important.

A  are being discussed       B to be discussed    C being discussed   D discussed

(6), The flowers _____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature

A to smell   B smelling   C smelt      D smell

(7), I am going to the supermarket this afternoon. Do you have anything _____ ?

A buying  B to buy   C for buying  D bought

(8) Do you have the ability_____ in English?

A to write   B to be written   C writing   D written

(9) The way he thought of ______ the problem didn’t work.

A settling     B to settle     C  settle        D settled

(10)His first book __________ next month is based on a true story.                

   A. published        B. to be published      C. to publish      D. being published

(11) The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and ____ less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat.

   A. being weighed     B. to weigh      C. weighed       D. weighing

(12). The government plans to bring in new laws _____ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children.  

A. forced       B. forcing    C. to be forced     D. having forced  

 

 

1)      B 2) D 3) A 4) C  5) C  6) B  7) B    8) A    9) B    10)B    11) D   12) B

 

小试身手::用所给词的适当形式填空(适合广东考生)

(1),Prices of daily goods __________(buy) through a computer can be lower than store prices.

(2), She felt so________(frighten) that she couldn’t drive the car at such a ________(frighten) speed.

(3,) I found a notice on the door, __________(read)“Don’t disturb.”

 (4) The man referred to _________ (help) me a lot while I was in university.

(5), The questions_______ (discuss)at the meeting now are very important.

(6), The flowers _____________(smell)sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature

( 7) Chengdu was the first city____________(hold) such a concert.

(8) Do you have the ability________(write) in English?

9) The way he thought of ________(settle) the problem didn’t work.

10) 10)His first book __________ (publish)next month is based on a true story.

(11). The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and _________(weigh) less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat.

(12). The government plans to bring in new laws ________(force) parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children.

 参考答案: 

 1)bought        2) frightened; frightening        3) reading    4) helped      5) being discussed

6) smelling         7) to hold                    8) to write     9)  to settle   10)  to be pulished   

11) weighing       12) forcing                            

5,作状语(不定式,分词)

1),不定式和分词作状语的区别:

不定式

目的

原因

结果

 

 

 

 

分词

 

原因

结果

时间

伴随

条件

让步

l         从上表可以看出,作目的状语,应该用不定式;

To live well, we must work hard. (目的状语)

He got very early in order not to miss the first bus.(目的状语)

= He got very early in order that he wouldn’t miss the first bus.

从上表可以看出,作时间,伴随/方式,让步, 条件状语,应该用分词。

Walking along the river, he met an old friend of him.(时间状语)

=While he was walking along the river, he met an old friend of him

He stayed late into the night , preparing the speech.(伴随状语)

I don’t want to stay out here, being bitten by insects. (伴随状语)

The girl lay trapped under the wreckage for three days. (伴随状语)

Turning right, you will see a garden in front o f you. (条件状语)

= If you turn right, you will see a garden in front o f you.

Given more time, I will be able to do it better.(条件状语)

=If I am given more time, I will be able to do it well.

Having said that she didn’t do the job well, I don’t think I am abler than her .(让步状语)

= Though I have said she didn’t do a job well, I don’t think I am abler than her .

Though defeated, he didn’t lose heart.

=Though he was defeated, he didn’t lose heart.

l         从上表可以看出,不定式和分词都可以作原因状语。be +adj.+ to do或者类似结构表示原因,分词用于其它情况。

How glad we were to see all the crops growing so well.

He jumped with joy to hear the news. =He was very glad to hear the news.

Not knowing his telephone number, I couldn’t get in contact with him.

=As I didn’t know his telephone number, I couldn’t get in contact with him.

Being poor, he had to leave school.

= As he was poor, he had to leave school

Crowds were waiting at the airport, hoping to see Madonna arrive.

= Crowds were waiting at the airport because they hoped to see Madonna arriv

 Not having received his letter,I wrote to him again.

=As I had not received his letter. I wrote to him again.

Raised in an atmosphere(环境) of love, he is always ready to help others.

= As he was raised in an atmosphere of love, he is always to help others.

Caught in a heavy rain, he had a fever. =As he was caught in a heavy rain, he had a fever.

 

l         从上表可以看出,不定式和分词都可以作结果状语。分词多表示顺承的结果;不定式一般用于too…to…, adj/adv enough…to…, so…as to…, only to…,never to…等结构,而且多表示转折,令人不快的结果。

A lot of trees were brought down, blocking(堵塞) the road.

= A lot of trees were brought down. As a result, the road was blocked.

He worked day and night, making himself near-sighted.

 = He worked day and night. As a result, he was near-sighted..

He made a long speech only to show his ignorance.(无知)

They hurried to the ticket office  only to be told all the tickets had been sold out.   

He left his hometown 20 years ago, never to return.

He woke up to find himself in hospital.                  

The prince grew up to be a hansome man.

Will be so kind as to help me ?

 

2)不定式,分词作状语时,必须与主句主语保持一致。

Seen from the top of the hill, our hometown looks beautiful.

Walking along the river, I met an old friend of mine.

To live well, we must work hard. (√)      To live well, hard work is necessary. (×)

特别说明:如果现在分词 过去分词和不定式都无法与主句主语保持一致,选状语从句。

_________ along the river , some beautiful scenes appeared before us.

A Walking      B To walk       C Walk         D When I was walking

3)  固定结构

to make matters/things worse; to tell you the truth; to be honest

judging from/by;  generally/strictly speaking;  considering everything=everything considered=taking everything into consideration=everything taken into consideration; taking /speaking of; providing/provided(that)(只要);supposing/suppose (that)(假定);   given(考虑到)

I will buy everything you produce, provided/proving the price is right.

Supposing/Suppose you are wrong, what will you do then ?

Given his state of health, he is not fit for the job.

 

小试身手:单项选择(适合广东外考生)

(1),The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _____ for the day.

A finishing    B finished    C had been finished     D was finished

(2) The children talked so loudly that I had to struggle______ by them.

A to be heard    B to have heard    C hearing       D  being heard

(3) _____ by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more greenhouses.

A, driven   B Being driven   C To drive         D Having driven

(4) As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not_____, and asked myself what I was going to do.

A moved        B moving         C to move    D being moved

(5 ) When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there _______ for a space flight.

A training        B  being trained      C  to train          D  to be trained

(6)_____  that she didn’t do the job well, I don’t think I am abler than him

A To have said   B Having said      C To say           D Saying

 (7) The news reporters hurried to the airport, only______ the film stars had left.

A to tell         B to be told       C telling          D being told

(8) _______ his son to work hard, he bought him a computer.

A Encouraging   B To encourage   C Encouraged    D encourage

(9) ________ from his accent, he must come from Sichuan.

A Judging       B Judged        C To Judge       D Judge

(10). It rained heavily in the south,_____________ serious flooding in several provinces.

A. caused   B. having caused    C. causing     D. to cause

(11 )Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock, ____________supplies to Yushu, Qinghai Province after the earthq uake.

A. sending       B. to send   C. having sent       D. to have sent

(12). Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers, almost three times the number hired last year, ________      reduce unemployment pressures.

A. help              B. to have helped     C. to help    D. having helped

(13)___________ with America, we have a long way to go.

A Having compared      B  Comparing       C Compared          D To compare

(14) While watching television, _______ .

A the doorbell rang           B the doorbell rings

C we heard the doorbell ring   D we heard the doorbell rings

(15), He had to spend the night _________ the old house.

A being locked   B locked      C to be locked     D locking

参考答案:

1)      B 2) A 3) A 4) B 5) D 6) B 7) B 8) B  9)A  10) C   11) A   12)C  13 C  14 C  15) B

 

小试身手::用所给词的适当形式填空(适合广东考生)

 (1),The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons ___________(finish)for the day.

 (2) The children talked so loudly that I had to struggle_____________(hear) by them .

 (3) __________(drive) by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more greenhouses.

 (4) As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not__________(move), and asked myself what I was going to do.

 (5 ) When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there __________(train) for a space flight.

 (6)_________(say)  that she didn’t do the job well, I don’t think I am abler than him

(7) The news reporters hurried to the airport, only__________(tell) the film stars had left.

 (8) ___________(encourage) his son to work hard, he bought him a computer.

 (9) ____________(Judge) from his accent, he must come from Sichuan.

(10). It rained heavily in the south,_____________(cause)serious flooding in several provinces.

 (11 )Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock, ____________(send)supplies to Yushu, Qinghai Province after the earthq uake.

12). Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers, almost three times the number hired last year, ________(help)      reduce unemployment pressures.

(13)___________(compare) with America, we have a long way to go.

(14), He had to spend the night _________(lock) the old house.

 

参考答案:

1)finished        2) to be heard      3) Driven       4) moving       5) to be trained

6) Having said     7) to be told        8) To encourage     9) Judging    10) causing  

11) sending        (12) to help        13) Compared     14) locked

 

6,非谓语动词作宾补

非谓语动词作宾补的情况:

非谓语动词作宾补常常受前面动词影响,需要具体记住下面常见形式

1)       encourage/allow/advise/persuade/forbid/remind/tell/ask/cause /force/warn/require etc sb to do

wait for/arrange for…to do sth

What caused it to happen?

We are all waiting for you to change your mind.

We have arranged for a photographer to take some photos.

   Books should be forbidden to be taken out of the library.

2),  like/love/prefer/hate/want/wish/expect/order sb to do

    like/love/prefer/hate/want/wish/order/expect sth (to be) done

I want you to have a rest.    

I want it( to be) well cooked.

3,)感官动词see/hear/feel/observe/notice//watch/smell

   see …do/doing/done/being done 看见…做了/正在做/被。。。了/正在被

   be seen…to do/doing/done/ being done

I saw them cut down the tree. It didn’t take long.

I saw them cutting down the tree as I went past.

I saw the tree cut down. It didn’t take long.

Isaw the tree being cut down as I went past.

Can you smell something burning ?

He was seen to enter the building.

他被看见进入了大楼。

He was seen entering the building.

他被看见正进入大楼。

4), 使役动词have/get/make/let

have…do/doing/done        

get…to do/doing/done

make …do/done             let…do

have…do  让 。。。。。。做=get …to do

have…done (1)请人做某事=get …done    (2) 遭受

have…doing  听人。。。。。。 做;让 。。。。。。一直做

get…..doing     让……开始做

He often makes us laugh.      

You should make your voice heard.

I had the garage service my car. =I got the garage to service my car.

I had my car serviced.=I got my car serviced.

My sister has had some money stolen.

I won’t have you speaking to your teacher like that.

I will get the car moving soon.

I will let you know my new address.

5), find/leave/catch/keep

find…doing/done/to be/being done           leave…doing/undone/ to do/ to be done

catch…doing                             keep…doing/done

I am sorry for having kept me waiting for me so long.  

You should keep yourself informed of the latest news.

6) sb/sth is said/reported/believed +不定式

 ( sb/sth seemed/happened/appeared+不定式)

He is said to have studied abroad last year.

Elephants are said to have good memories.

7),with结构 with…to do/to be done /doing/done… 此结构常在句中作伴随,原因,方式,时间状语或者定语,可以根据具体情况用非谓语动词任何形式

With a lot work to do, Mr. Li felt very nervous.

With the examinations to be held two weeks away, he felt nervous.

A car roared past with smoke pouring from the exhaust(排气管).

With all the visitors gone, the village was quiet again.

With their hands held high, the dancers circled to the right.

He stood there, with his eyes staring into the sky.

With the restaurant having closed, there was nowhere to eat.

Anyone with its eyes in his head can see it’s exactly like a rope.

 

小试身手:单项选择(适合广东外考生)

(1)A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left______.

A unsatisfied    B unsatisfying     C to be unsatisfying    D being unsatisfying

(2) AIDS is said_____ the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years.

A that is        B to be     C that it has been   D to have been

(3) I smell something______ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute?

A burning   B burnt    C being burnt     D to be burnt

(4)--- Excuse me; sir ; where is room 301?

  --- Just a minute. I will have Bob____ you to your room.

A show  B shows    C  to show   D showing

(5) After a knock at the door; the child heard his mother’s voice_____ him.

A calling  B  called  C being called   D  to call

(6) Anyone caught___________ will be punished.

A to cheat    B  cheat      C cheating      D cheated

答案1) A  2) D 3) A 4) A 5) A    6) C

 

小试身手::用所给词的适当形式填空(适合广东考生)

(1)A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left___________(unsatisfy).

(2) I smell something__________ (burn)in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute?

(3)With their hands ________(hold) high, the dancers circled to the right.

(4)He stood there, with his eyes __________(stare) into the sky.

(5) After a knock at the door; the child heard his mother’s voice_________(call) him.

A calling  B  called  C being called   D  to call

(6) Anyone caught___________ (cheat)will be punished.

A to cheat    B  cheat      C cheating      D cheated

答案1) unsatisfied      2) burning       3) held

     4) staring         5) calling       6) cheating

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

非谓语动词(二)

1,非谓语动词的时态与语态。

to do主动,将来; to be done被动,将来      to be doing  主动,进行      

to have done 主动,完成                    to have been done 被动,完成

to have been doing 主动,持续

I have a lot of work to do this afternoon.

The building to be completed next month will be our teaching building,

He is said to be studying abroad now, but I don’t know how he is getting on.

He is said to have studied abroad last year.

This book is said to have been translated into more than 20 languages so far.

He is said to have been painting the room for 4 hours so far.

Robert is said to _________ abroad 10 years ago , but I don’t know what country he studied in.

A to have studied                B to study

C to be studying                 D to have been studying

答案:A

doing主动,进行         being done 被动,进行 

having done 主动,完成  having been done 被动,完成

 done 被动,完成      having been doing 主动,持续

注:having been done 强调动作时间先后,done不强调。

Having been told many times, he still didn’t know how to do it.

Encouraged by his math teacher, he worked harder.

Searching for words, he stood there in embarrassment(尴尬)。

The question being discussed now is of great importance.

I don’t want to be out here being bitten by insects.

Having finished her homework, the little girl began to watch TV.

They left the restaurant, having spent two hours over lunch.

Having been painting the wall for two hours, he felt very tired.

温馨提示:短暂动词的一般时 doing有时可以表示“完成”

Taking/Having taken a note from her purse, she slammed it down on the counter

 

小试身手:单项选择(适合广东外考生)

(1). The play           next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture.

A. produced              B. being produced

C. to be produced         D. having been produced

(2) For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit _____ on his own farm.   

A. grown   B. being grown   C. to be grown   D. to grow

(3). ___ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog.   

A. Being bitten    B. Bitten    C. Having bitten      D. To be bitten

(4)    not to miss the flight at 15:20, the manager set out for the airport in a hurry.   

A. Reminding            B. Reminded             C. To remind         D. Having reminded

(5) At the age of 29, Dave was a worker,        in a small apartment near Boston and ______ what to do about his future.

A. living; wondering                                 B. lived; wondering

C. lived; wondered                                   D. living; wondered

(6)The government plans to bring in new laws _____ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children.  

A. forced       B. forcing    C. to be forced     D. having forced

(7)With the government’s aid, those _____ by the earthquake have moved to the new settlements.  

A. affect          B. affecting         C. affected        D. were affected  

(8) ________ many times, he finally understood it.  

A. Told     B. Telling    C. Having told    D. Having been told

(9) __________________, and he finally understood it.

A Told                       B Having told       

C He had been told many times    D Having been told

(10) The building___________ now will be our library.

A being built     B to be built     C is being built         D has built

(11) ____________ the document,the lawyer locked it in the safe.

A Reading      B To read        C     Having read      D To have read

参考答案:1) C    2) A    3) B    4) B     5) A    6) B

          7) C      8) D    9) C    10) A    11) C

(1). The play__________ (produce)next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture.

(2) For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit ________(grow) on his own farm.   

(3) ____________(bite) twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog.   

(4)    ______________(remind)not to miss the flight at 15:20, the manager set out for the airport in a hurry.   

 (5) At the age of 29, Dave was a worker,       __(live) in a small apartment near Boston and ________ (wonder)what to do about his future.

 (6)The government plans to bring in new laws ________(force) parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children.  

 (7)With the government’s aid, those __________(affect by the earthquake have moved to the new settlements.  

 (8) ______________(tell) many times, he finally understood it.  

 (9) The building___________(build) now will be our library.

 (10) ____________ (read)the document,the lawyer locked it in the safe.

 

参考答案:

1)to be produced      2) grown       3) Bitten             4) Reminded      5) living; wondering

6) forcing           7) affected       8) Hving been told      9) being built     10) Having read

2, 非谓语动词否定形式:not + 非谓语动词    not+ to do/do/dong/having done etc.  

 Tell him not to open the door.         Let him not do that again.

He apologized for his not being able to inform the change of the plan.

Not knowing his telephone number, I couldn’t get in touch with him.

_____________his letter, I decided to write to him again.

A Not receiving    B Receiving not     C Not having received    D Having not received

___________ his letter , so I decided to write to him again.

A Not received    B Not having received    C Not receiving     D I didn’t receive

答案:C   D

3,,非谓语动词的复合结构。(动名词的复合结构和不定式的复合结构)

动名词的复合结构: sb’s dong/sb doing/介词+there being。 此结构在句子中作主语,宾语等。

动名词复合结构作主语时,必须用 sb’s doing形式;作宾语时用sb doing形式,有时也可以用sb’s doing 形式。

A person’s knowing English will help him in learning French.   There are many reasons for animals dying out.    

I remember John’s/John going there.            What is the chance of there being an election this year?

不定式的复合结构:for sb to do/ for sth to be done/ of sb to do /for there to be

I will speak slowly enough for you to take notes.         It is really kind of you to help me.

It isn’t cold enough for there to be a frost tonight, so I can leave my car out safely.

It is usual for there to be many books in the library.

I t took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness to be made.

小试身手

1)It isn’t cold enough for there______ a frost tonight, so I can leave my car out safely.

A will be          B being       C is       D to be

2)I have never dreamed of _____ a chance for me to be sent abroad at public expense so soon.

A there will be     B there to be       C there is         D there being

3) I t took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness______.

A to make  B to be made   C making   D being made

答案:D D B

4, 非谓语动词一些特殊结构

l                       there is no doing 不可能,;不可以

There is no denying(否定) that he is fit for the job..

There is no knowing what will be in store for me.

There is no taking him lightly 

l                       no doing 禁止        No smoking/parking here.

l                       what/who/which etc. to do 此结构在句子中作主语,宾语,表语

When to hold the meeting is not known yet.      I didn’t know what to do.

The problem is how to get so much money in so little time.

He told us whether _________ a picnic was still under discussion

A. to have        B. having      C. have        D. had

答案: A

l                       介词+which/whom to do 此结构在句子中作定语

He is a nice person with whom to get on. =He is a nice person to get on. with.

This is a comfortable city in which to live. =This is a comfortable city to live in.

Mr. Li is a nice person ______________.

A with whom to get on         B with who to get on

C who to get on with          D whom to get on with

答案:A

5,非谓语动词的独立主格结构(此结构可以不掌握

非谓语动词的独立主格结构仍然是非谓语动词,只不过非谓语动词自己加了自己的主语而已。

It being a fine day, we went out.                  There being nothing else to do, we went home.       

Weather permitting, we will have an outing tomorrow.       He lay there, his eyes staring into the sky.

The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible.

The homework finished , he went on to watch TV.     He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.

I send you 1000 dollars, the rest to follow in a month.

 

He went out of the classroom , book in hand.=………… , with a book in his hand.

An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive.

The meeting over, they all went home

 注:独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词with

He lay there, his eyes staring into the sky. =He lay there, with his eyes staring into the sky.

1)The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ______ at the end of last March.

A had been launched      B was launched        C has been laughed          D having been laughed

2)Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon.

A. its        B. whose         C. which          D. that

3) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages.

A. it         B. them          C .which          D. that

4) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.

A. it         B. them            C. which         D. that

5) He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.

A. it         B. them          C. which            D. that

6) There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners.

 A. which      B. them         C. whom           D. that

7) There I met several people, two of _________ were foreigners.

A. which      B. them         C. whom           D. that

8) There I met several people, and two of _________ were foreigners.

A. which      B. them         C. whom           D. that

答案:1) D     2) A      3) B    4) C   5) B    6) B    7) C    8) B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

非谓语综合练习:

Name______       Class_____

1)Mr. Li is a nice person ______________.

A with whom to get on         B with who to get on

C who to get on with          D whom to get on with

2)----They are quiet, aren’t they ?

----- Yes. They are accustomed ______ over meals.

A to talk     B not to talk     C to talking      D to not talking

(3) I hear they have promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention________ when he talked on the phone.

A to promote    B having been promoted     C having promoted     D to be promoted

4) I regretted ______ in playing computers.

A the hours wasting    B the hours wasted    C the hours to waste     D the hours being wasted

5).Distinguished guests and friends, welcome to our school, _________       the ceremony of the 50th Anniversary this morning are our alumni (校友) from home and abroad.

A. Attend      B. To attend         C. Attending        D. Having attended

(6) A man _____ Yin Qing is waiting outside for you.

A called   B calling  C to call    D  being called

(7 )A man_____ himself Yi Qing is waiting outside for you.

A called   B calling  C to call    D  being called

(8), The problem_____ us is that we don’t have enough money.

A facing     B   to face   C faced      D being faced

(9),Mr.. stood up in defense of the 16-year old Boy, saying that he was not the one  _____.

A blamed    B blaming  C to blame       D to be blamed

(10)______ for the break down of the school computer, Alice was in low spirits.

A Blamed   B Blaming    C To blame    D To be blamed

(11) While watching television, _______ .

A the doorbell rang           B the doorbell rings

C we heard the doorbell ring   D we heard the doorbell rings

(12) _____ in use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply break-downs.

A Put    B Putting      C Having put    D Being put

 (13) ----Why do you often read Reader’s Digest?

 ---- _____my vocabulary.

A Enlarging    B Enlarge  C To enlarge  D enlarged

(14) No matter how frequently_______, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world.

A performed   B performing   C to be performed   D being performed

(15) Don’t sit there _____ nothing . Come and help me with the table.

A do  B to do  C doing  D and doing

(16)When _____ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities.

A compared   B being compared   C comparing   D having compared

(17) _____ with America, we still have a long way to go.

A compared   B being compared   C comparing   D having compared

(18) Faced with a bill for $ 10,000,_________.

A John has taken an extra job   B the boss has given john an extra job

C an extra job has been taken   D  an extra job has been given to John

(19) __________ now, the house gives an unpleasant smell.

A Decorated   B  being decorated   C to be decorated  D having decorated

(20) _______ from his accent , he must come from Sichuan.

A Judged     B  To Judge         C  Judge    D Judging

(21),The last one ____ pays the meal.

A arrived    B   arrives   C to arrive        D  arriving 

 (22) _______   so much trouble, we failed to finish the task on time.

A  Faced     B Facing    C  Face    D To face

(23) These workers get______ by the week.

A paying     B pay     C  to pay   D  paid

(24) The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ______ at the end of last March.

A had been launched      B was launched  C has been laughed          D having been laughed

(25) _____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home.

A  Waiting  B To have waited    C Having waited     D Had waited

(26) Leonard da Vinci(1452—1519)_____ birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free.

A is said to be buying    B is said to have bought   C had said to buy         D has said to have bought

(27) ---- Come on; please give me some ideas about the project.

  ----- Sorry. With so much work _______ my mind, I have almost broken down.

A filled   B filling    C to fill      D being filled

(28) Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English_____ in a short period.

A improved   B improving   B to improve     D improve

(29) He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them_____ in his lectures.

A interested    B interesting    C  interest    D  to interest

(30) John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work______, he gladly accepted it.

A finished   B finishing   C had finished     D  was finished

(31) Having been ill in bed for nearly a month, he had a hard time_____ the exam.

A pass    B to pass     C passed   D passing

(32) I can understand her ______ to live alone and be independent.

A want    B wants     C wanting    D to want

(33) ________ to give up smoking, Mr Li threw away all the lighters.

A Determined     B Determining      C Decided        D Deciding

(34) The storm left, ______ a lot of damage to this area.

A caused     B to have caused      C to cause     D  having caused

(35) The man______ of shooting 6 school children was caught by Beijing police.

A being suspected       B suspected     C suspecting     D to be suspected

36) I t took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness______.

A to make  B to be made   C making   D being made

                                                

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